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UNGA Disarmament Index 2011: H–R

This is an index of all references made to issues of disarmament, peace, and security, made in the 66th General Debate of the United Nations General Assembly from 21–30 September 2011. Included in this index are all references made to arms control, disarmament, multilateralism, nuclear energy, security, proliferation, the arms trade, and nuclear and conventional weapons.

A-G | H-R | S-Z

Haiti | Holy See | Honduras | Hungary
Iceland | India | Indonesia | Iran | Iraq | Ireland | Israel | Italy

Jamaica | Japan | Jordan
Kazakhstan
| Kenya | Kiribati | Kuwait | Kyrgyzstan
Laos
| Latvia | Lebanon | Lesotho | Liberia | Libya | Liechtenstein | Lithuania | Luxembourg

Macedonia | Madagascar | Malawi | Malaysia | Maldives | Mali | Malta | Marshall Islands | Mauritania | Mauritius | Mexico | Micronesia | Moldova | Monaco | Mongolia | Montenegro | Morocco | Mozambique | Myanmar
Namibia
| Nauru | Nepal | Netherlands | New Zealand | Nicaragua | Niger  | Nigeria | Norway
Oman
Pakistan
| Palau | Palestine | Panama | Papua New Guinea | Paraguay | Peru | Philippines | Poland | Portugal

Qatar
Republic of Korea | Republic of Moldova | Romania | Russian Federation | Rwanda

Haiti
H.E. Mr. Michel Joseph Martelly, President
23 September 2011

No relevant comments.

Holy See
H.E. Archbishop Dominique Mamberti, Secretary for Relations with States
27 September 2011

[unofficial translation] 

Arms trade treaty: "This strategy can only benefit from the UN Conference on the Treaty on the Arms Trade Treaty (ATT), in 2012. The arms trade is not regulated nor transparent, and has a significant negative impact. It impedes human development, increasing the risk of conflicts, especially internal and instability, and promotes a culture of violence and impunity, often linked to criminal activities including drug trafficking, trafficking in human beings and piracy, which are increasingly serious international problems. The results of the current process [for an ATT] will be a test of the real will of States to assume their moral and legal responsibility in this area. The international community must address to achieve an Arms Trade Treaty that is effective and applicable, recognizing the large number of those affected by the illegal trade of arms and ammunition and their suffering. Indeed, the main goal of treatment should not only be that of regulating trade in conventional arms and to obstruct the black market, but especially that of protecting human life and to build a world more respectful of human dignity."

Honduras
H.E. Mr. Porfirio Lobo Sosa
21 September 2011

Arms: "The organized transnational violence and delinquency manifested itself principally by the commission of narco-trafficking crimes, kidnapping, murder, money laundering activities, arms trafficking, the sexual exploitation of women and minors among others, which constitute a grave threat to the people as much as for governments. It compromises our possibilities of promoting well-being."

Iceland
H.E. Mr. Össur Skarphéðinsson, Minister for Foreign Affairs
26 September 2011

No relevant comments.

India
H.E. Mr. Manmohan Singh, Prime Minister
24 September 2011

Nuclear proliferation, disarmament: "Nuclear proliferation continues to remain a threat to international security. The Action Plan put forward by Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi for a Nuclear-Weapon Free and Non-Violent World provides a concrete road map for achieving nuclear disarmament in a time-bound, universal, non-discriminatory, phased and verifiable manner."

Nuclear safety: "I commend the United Nations for its efforts in focusing world attention on nuclear safety. Our plans for utilizing nuclear ower to meet our energy needs hinge upon full satisfaction about the safety of nuclear energy. We have undertaken a thorough review of the safety of our nuclear plants. We support international efforts under the aegis of the International Atomic Energy Agency to enhance levels of safety and security."

Indonesia
H.E. R.M. Mr. Marty M. Natalegawa, Minister of Foreign Affairs
26 September 2011

Nuclear weapons: "Our world continues to be replete with challenges: of political and military tensions and conflicts, as well as the threats of nuclear weapons."

Iran (Islamic Republic of)
H.E. Mr. Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, President
22 September 2011

Nuclear weapons: “Who used nuclear bomb against defenseless people, and stockpiled thousands of warheads in their arsenals?”

Chemical weapons: “Who provoked and encouraged Saddam Hussein to invade and impose an eight-year war on Iran, and who assisted and equipped him to deploy chemical weapons against our cities and our people?”

Militarism: “Whose economies rely on waging wars and selling arms?”

“Which governments are always ready to drop thousands of bombs on other countries, but ponder and hesitate to provide aid to famine-stricken people in Somalia or in other places?”

“Is it acceptable that they call themselves the sole defender of freedom, democracy, and human rights, while they militarily attack and occupy other countries?”

“What is the justification for the presence of hundreds of US military and intelligence bases in different parts of the world, including 268 bases in Germany, 124 in Japan, 87 in South Korea, 83 in Italy, 45 in the United Kingdom, and 21 in Portugal? Does this mean anything other than military occupation? Don't the bombs deployed in the said bases undermine the security of other nations?”

‘They weaken countries through military intervention, and destroy their infrastructures, in order to plunder their resources by making them all the more dependent.”

‘Real freedom, justice, dignity, well being, and lasting security are the rights of all nations. These values can neither be achieved by reliance on the current inefficient system of world governance, nor through the invasion of the world by arrogant powers and the gun barrels of NATO forces.”

Military spending: “Which country’s military spending exceeds annually a thousand billion dollars, more than the military budgets of all countries of the world combined?”

“If only half of military expenditures of the United States and its allies in NATO was shifted to help solve the economic problems in their own countries, would they be witnessing any symptom of the economic crisis? What would happen, if the same amount was allocated to poor nations?”

Iraq
H.E. Mr. Jalal Talabani, President
23 September 2011

Disarmament, non-proliferation, WMD, nuclear power: "When it comes to our obligations to disarmament and non proliferation, the Constitution of Iraq was clear in determing the position of Iraq concerning this issue, Article (9 E) of the Iraqi Constitution provided that the Iraqi Government shall respect and implement Iraq's international obligations regarding the non-proliferation, nondevelopment, non-production, and non-use of nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons, and shall prohibit associated equipment, materiel, technologies, and delivery systems for use in the development, manufacture, production, and use of such weapons. On this clear position and commitment of Iraq with the international Charters concerning disarmament, the Security Council adopted on 15 December 2010 Resolution 1957 which lifted all restrictions that were imposed on Iraq in this concern. In this context, we would like to confirm the legitimate right of States to peaceful use of nuclear power and its technologies according to the rules of the relevant International conventions. This right constitute one of the foundations for the disarmament system and non- proliferation."

Iran's nuclear programme: "Within this approach, when it comes to the nuclear file of the Islamic Republic of Iran, Iraq believes in the legitimate right of states in using nuclear energy for peaceful purposes. This right is guaranteed by the international Charters; at the forefront of those charters is the non-proliferation treaty. We affirm the importance of reaching a peaceful solution in dealing with this issue; dialogue and calm diplomatic work are the best ways to achieve this goal. On the other hand any escalation will harm the interests of all parties and will put the security of the region at a great risk."

Ireland
H.E. Mr. Eamon Gilmore, Deputy Prime Minister
26 September 2011

Disarmament machinery, NPT, arms trade treaty, cluster munitions: "We will continue to push for the UN's disarmament machinery to become more responsive to 21st century imperatives. Key challenges for the year ahead include implementation of the agreements reached at last year's Non-Proliferation Treaty Review Conference, as well as negotiation of a robust Arms Trade Treaty. We will maintain a strong focus on implementation and universalisation of the Convention on Cluster Munitions, adopted in Dublin three years ago."

Israel
H.E. Mr. Benjamin Netanyahu, Prime Minister
23 September 2011

Iran's nuclear programme: "I believe that the greatest danger facing our world is that this fanaticism will arm itself with nuclear weapons. And this is precisely what Iran is trying to do. Can you imagine that man who ranted here yesterday -- can you imagine him armed with nuclear weapons? The international community must stop Iran before it's too late."

Italy
H.E. Mr. Franco Frattini, Minister for Foreign Affairs
24 September 2011

No relevant comments.

Jamaica
H.E. Mr. Kenneth Baugh, Deputy Prime Minister
26 September 2011

Nuclear disarmament, CTBT: "The total elimination of nuclear weapons remains an important goal for the international community. While we have taken significant steps toward achieving this goal, significant challenges remain: a number of key players remain outside the NPT; and the CTBT has still not yet entered into force. As we look towards the start of the Preparatory process for the 2015 Review Conference, there must be the unquestionable political will to address these lingering deficiencies towards achieving a world free of nuclear weapons."

Small arms and light weapons: "Mr. President, we must continue to build on the momentum gained from last year's Special High Level Meeting on Transnational Organised Crime, which addressed measures to counter the growing problem, including narco-trafficking and the illicit trade in small arms and ammunition. Jamaica, like its CARICOM partners, continues to face severe threats to our long-term socio-economic development from the illicit trafficking in narcotic drugs, small arms and light weapons and ammunition. We will remain resolute in our fight against this menace both locally and abroad. We have achieved marked reductions in crime and criminal activities over the past year, with our multi-faceted strategy to stem the problems, as well as through the implementation of social intervention and social transformation initiatives to stem the problem of crime and violence. We continue to strengthen the capacity of our security forces and improve our justice system to ensure that criminals are caught and prosecuted in a court of law."

Small arms and light weapons, ATT: "We firmly believe, however, that we will not see the full impact of these efforts without an international regime that regulates the sale and transfer of conventional weapons, in particular, small arms and light weapons and their ammunition. To this end, Jamaica is committed to ensuring that the 2012 Diplomatic Conference on the Arms Trade Treaty results in a legally binding, comprehensive, objective and transparent Treaty."

Japan
H.E. Mr. Yoshihiko Noda, Prime Minister
23 September 2011

Nuclear safety: "We are making steady progress towards securing stable control of the situation at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Stations of the Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO). Currently, we are focusing our efforts on moving up the existing target period to achieve cold shutdown status by the end of this year. A number of other challenges remain to be addressed, including removal of debris and rebuilding of the livelihoods of the people in the affected areas. We will continue to be fully engaged in the efforts for
restoration and reconstruction, as our highest priority task, so that Japan's renewal can be realized without delay."

"Japan hopes to share its acquired knowledge and experience in the field of nuclear safety. l welcome the holding yesterday of the high-level meeting on this issue under the initiative of the Secretary-General. Following the nuclear accident, Japan has implemented emergency safety measures and has further strengthened its nuclear energy regulation regime. In yesterday's meeting, l expressed my resolve to contribute positively to the reinforcement of global nuclear power safety, drawing on our experiences in the accident. Next year, Japan will co-host an international conference with the IAEA to share the results of the overall assessment of the accident in comprehensive detail, and to contribute to the various measures taken by the international community to raise the standards for nuclear safety. Although some countries, regrettably, are still imposing undue restrictions on imports from Japan, our government will continue to provide prompt and accurate information on this matter, with transparency. l would request that all countries make sound judgments based upon scientific evidence."

Nuclear disarmament and non-proliferation: "...we will do our best to achieve the ideal of "a World without Nuclear Weapons" through such efforts as the Non-Proliferation and Disarmament Initiative (NPDI)."

DPRK nuclear programme: "The DPRK's nuclear and missile issues pose a threat to the entire international community, and Japan continues to urge the DPRK to take concrete actions toward their resolution."

Jordan
H.M. King Abdullah II Bin Al Hussein, Head of State
21 September 2011

No relevant comments.

Kazakhstan
H.E. Mr. Nursultan Nazarbayev, President
21 September 2011

Nuclear weapons, disarmament, nuclear testing: “First, we have shut down the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site and have become one of the world’s first newly independent non-nuclear States. That represents an important contribution by my country to global peace and stability.”

WMD: “This year, Kazakhstan has assumed an important mission - the Chairmanship of the Organization of Islamic Cooperation (OIC). We have focused our Chairmanship on international and regional security, a dialogue between the Islamic world and the West and the efforts to counter Islamophobia and enhance the regimes of non-proliferation of weapons of mass destruction.”

Military spending: “It is quite significant that today the world's total military spending grows twice as fast as during the Cold War - by 6 per cent a year, reaching 1.5 trillion U.S. dollars. In this regard, my initiative to establish a United Nations Peacekeeping Fund, which I put forward for the first time nineteen years ago, has become even more relevant. We are talking here about each United Nations Member State allotting 1 percent of its military budget.”

Kenya
H.E. Mr. Mwai Kibaki, President
22 September 2011

No relevant comments.

Kiribati
H.E. Mr. Anote Tong, President and Head of Government
23 September 2011

No relevant comments.

Kuwait
H.H. Sheikh Naser Al-Mohammad Al-Ahmad Al-Sabah, Prime Minister
22 September 2011

Iran's nuclear programme: "The State of Kuwait attaches great importance on consolidating and developing its relations with its neighbours on firm and solid grounds, based upon mutual respect and common interests, as well as promoting these relations to the level that meets the aspirations of the peoples of the region. In this context, the State of Kuwait calis upon the Islamic Republic of Iran to take serious and real confidence-building measures, represented in adhering to the resolutions of international legitimacy as well as cooperating with the International Atomic Energy Agency, to dispel the fears and doubts that surround its nuclear programs, in addition to its positive cooperation to resolve the dispute over the occupied Emirati islands according to the principles and rules of international law."

Kyrgyzstan
H.E. Ms. Rosa Otunbaeva, President
22 September 2011

Nuclear waste, radiation: "The issues of re-cultivating uranium tailings remain to be an extremely acute problem. The International High-Level Meeting on Uranium Tailings in Central Asia held under the auspices of the UNDP in September 2009 in Geneva showed the willingness of the countries in the region to jointly resolve this sensitive issue. In this context the Kyrgyz delegation is ready to introduce to the UN GA a draft resolution on the role of the international community in preventing the radiation threat in Central Asia."

NWFZ, CTBT, NPT: "Kyrgyzstan as one of the initiators of creating a Nuclear Weapon Free Zone in Central Asia and as the depositary of this treaty, which entered into force on 21 March 2009, considers important the promptest entry into force of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty and strengthening of the universality of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty."

Lao People's Democratic Republic
H.E. Mr. Thongloun Sisoulith, Deputy Prime Minister
26 September 2011

Cluster munitions, explosive weapons: "Socio-economic development in a country which has suffered from the consequnces and legacy of war has never been easy. One of the main obstacles and hindrances in our effort to advance socio-economic development is Unexploded Ordnance (UXO), which continues to extensively and seriously cause negative impact both direcdy and indirecdy on the livelihood of the Lao people. The Lao Government has deployed all its efforts and mobilized financial means to clear the contaminated areas particularly the agricultural and inhabitable land across the country as weIl as to raise public awareness and help victims in order for them to reintegrate into the society. In discharging its duty as President of the Oslo Convention, throughout the past year the Lao PDR has received invaluable support and assistance from the international cornmunity including both states parties and non-state parties as weIl as international organizations in particular UNDP, civil society organizations, and INGOs, all of which has contributed to the early implementation of this humanitarian Convention. On this note, I would like to express, on behalf of the Lao Government and people as well as on my own behalf, my most sincere appreciation to all countries and international organizations for the support and assistance rendered. This has clearly reflected in the broad participation in the First Meeting of States Parties to the Convention on Cluster Munitions, which was hosted by the Lao PDR in Vientiane in November 2010. Furthermore, I would like to congratulate those countries, which have ratified or acceded to the Convention on Cluster Munitions. The number of states parties to this Convention has now increased to 63 states. I do hope that other countries that are not yet States Parties to this Convention would cons ider acceding to it in the near future."

Latvia
H.E. Mr. Adris Bērziņš, President
21 September 2011

No relevant comments.

Lebanon
H.E. Mr. Michel Sleiman, President
21 September 2011

Cluster munitions: “A few days ago, Lebanon hosted the Second Meeting of States Parties to the Convention on cluster bombs that concluded with «the Beirut Declaration», which constituted a defining moment in the course of implementing this Convention. And although addressing this issue stems from humanitarian considerations, this meeting has highlighted the terrible fallout of these weapons which have been heavily used by Israel during the aggression of July 2006. These weapons still threaten civilians on their farmlands and the innocent children in the open fields of their games in South Lebanon, which warrant condemning Israel and requesting that it appropriately compensate for the harm and extensive damage it has caused Lebanon through these weapons as well as the overall damage of its repeated aggressions against Lebanon, including those caused by the oil slick resulting from the Israeli bombardment of the Jiyeh power plant in the sununer of 2006.”

Lesotho
H.E. Mr. Pakalitha Bethuel Mosisili, Prime Minister
24 September 2011

WMD terrorism, nuclear disarmament, non-proliferation: "The biggest challenge that we face in the post cold war era is to ensure that terrorists do not lay their hands on weapons of mass destruction. It is in this regard that we reiterate our call for the total elimination of all nuclear weapons. We are convinced that the only assurance that terrorists will never have access to nuclear weapons is their total elimination. We urge the Nuclear Weapon States to remain faithful to their commitments under the Treaty on the Non Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT). We further call on the Member States who have not joined the NPT, to do so without any further delay. But it will be illogical to demand of non-nuclear states to shun proliferation of nuclear weapons, while states that possess nuclear weapons continue to perfect new generations of these weapons, and to threaten their use at the slightest opportunity."

Militarism: "Strangely, and despite having mediation at its disposal, the Security Council has at times preferred military intervention. I may also add that, at times, some Members of the International Community have unilaterally engaged in military interventions. Whenever military intervention has been preferred, it has not enjoyed the support ofthe general membership of the UN. Needless to mention that the cost of military intervention in conflicts is catastrophic on the innocent civilians, and destroys infrastructure and economies of countries."

Liberia
H.E. Mr. Joseph N. Boakai, Vice-President
26 September 2011

Small arms and light weapons: "ECOWAS Member States are contributing tangibly to peacebuilding in Liberia by strengthening capacity especially in technical areas. We are also collaborating as a subregion in addressing common problems of transitional organized crime, human and drug trafficking, and illicit trade of small arms and light weapons."

Libya
H.E. Mr. Mahmoud Jibreel, Chairman, Transitional Council Executive Office
24 September 2011

No relevant comments.

Liechtenstein
H.E. Ms. Aurelia Frick, Minister for Foreign Affairs
26 September 2011

No relevant comments.

Lithuania
H.E. Ms. Dalia Grybauskaitė, President
22 September 2011

Nuclear power: "I especially appreciate and would like to stress the importance ofthe UN Secretary General's strong engagement in nuclear safety and his call to build a stronger connection bet\veen nuclear safety and nuclear security. Knowing the world's energy needs today, nuclear energy can be an essential element of global sustainable development, provided it is used with the necessary responsibility. I would like to draw your special attention to the word "responsibility". Chernobyl and Fukushima are tragic examples, but they teach us very important lessons. It is not enough to rely on recommendations, proposals and encouragement for cooperation when we deal with nuclear safety issues. I do believe that our responsibility is to create strict legal international imperatives. We cannot allow any compromises on satety and security.

"In this respect, the efforts of the United Nations, the International Atomic Energy Agency, the European Union, and other organizations to ensure nuclear safety throughout the world are most needed. Lithuania emphasizes the key role of the International Atomic Energy Agency in this area. We call for an ambitious nuclear safety action plan to be approved at the ongoing general conference in Vienna. Lithuania believes that strict adherence to uniform nuclear safety standards must be obligatory. Specialized Agency missions for the entire nuclear cycle, including site evaluation and follow-up missions, should also become an inseparable part of any nuclear power plant development. Each and every nuclear power plant, its site, nuclear technology, and even the ability of the personnel to ensure safety maintenance should be subjected to stress tests. Last but not least, information about all existing and planned nuclear projects must be absolutely transparent and open to public access. We believe that the nuclear security summit in Korea next year will provide an excellent platform for discussing nuclear safety and security issues. With a view to this forthcoming summit, Lithuania is ready to contribute to the practical measures set forth in the 2010 Nuclear Security Summit Work Plan."

Luxembourg
H.E. Mr. Jean Asselborn, Deputy Prime Minister, Minister of Foreign Affairs
24 September 2011

No relevant comments.

Macedonia (The former Yugoslav Republic of)
H.E. Mr. Nikola Gruevski, Prime Minister
24 September 2011

No relevant comments.

Madagascar
H.E. Mr. Andry Nirina Rajoelina, President
23 September 2011

[unofficial translation]

Militarism: "History teaches us that even after the use of force, war and conflict always end around a table. It clearly shows that mediation can be chosen as an alternative to guns."

Malawi
H.E. Mr. Arthur Peter Mutharika, Minister for Foreign Affairs
27 September 2011

No relevant comments.

Malaysia
H.E. Dato Sri Anifah Aman, Minister for Foreign Affairs
27 September 2011

Nucear disarmament: "Nuclear disarmament occupies a central role in the work of the United Nations. This is reflected by the fact that the very first resolution adopted by the General Assembly spoke, among others, of 'the elimination from national armaments of atomic weapons and of all major weapons adaptable to mass destruction'. Yet sixty-five years on, it remains a distant dream. All States need to do their part in order to achieve more substantive progress in this area. Malaysia is committed to working with other member states to realize the goal of a nuclear-weapon free world. We will continue to advocate for the total elimination of nuclear weapons through a Nuclear Weapons Convention. To progress further on this issue, we require consensus on commencing the multilateral negotiations process. This in turn, requires good faith on the part of the states possessing nuclear weapons. I call on these states to demonstrate this good faith."

Maldives
H.E. Mr. Mohamed Waheed, Vice-President
26 September 2011

No relevant comments.

Mali
H.E. Ms. Cissé Mariam Kaïdama Sidibé, Prime Minister
23 September 2011

[unofficial translation]

Militarism: "Now more than ever, it is high time that the logic of weapons and deadly clashes gave way to the imperative of dialogue and national reconciliation, the gateway to the establishment of lasting peace, the consolidation of the national unity and preservation of territorial integrity."

Small arms and light weapons: "Peace and security continue to be threatened by other phenomena such as international terrorism, transnational organized crime, arms trafficking, drugs, and human beings."

"Our sub-region is facing these days, the proliferation of small arms and light weapons, trafficking in drugs and human beings led by organized crime networks in collusion with terrorist groups. The events in Libya and their side effects may further exacerbate the already serious situation."

Malta
H.E. Mr. Lawrence Gonzi, Prime Minister
24 September 2011

No relevant comments.

Marshall Islands (The)
H.E. Mr. John M. Silk, Minister for Foreign Affairs
26 September 2011

Nuclear testing: "Fifty-seven years ago, the United Nations held in its trust the Marshallese people, at the dawn of the Cold War. Our Marshallese leaders petitioned the United Nations to put a halt to the testing of nuclear weapons; the United Nations responded with UN Trusteeship Resolutions 1082 (passed in 1954) and 1493 (passed in 1956). Acting with assurances of our protection, the United Nations, and its Administering Authority, the United States, detonated 67 large-scale nuclear explosions in the Marshall Islands. For decades, Marshallese leaders have returned to the United Nations to speak of the continuing impacts - cancer, fear, and continued exile from our homelands - and of a science where goalposts are always moving.

"Three weeks ago, the leaders of the Pacific Islands Forum, in their Communique, recognized not only the special responsibility by the United States of America, but also agreed to support the Marshall Islands at the United Nations, including in addressing the Secretary-General's report. There is a clear responsibility of the United Nations to acknowledge and address the consequences of nuclear testing undertaken during it's watch.

"Last year the General Assembly requested that the Secretary-General report on the effects of atomic radiation in the Marshall Islands. This report represents the potential for the Marshall Islands, the United States, and the United Nations to take a very positive step forward in understanding our past, bringing closure to this sad chapter in our history, and to understand how the international community can assist us in addressing future remediation challenges. The involvement of the UN is key.

"Sadly, I am concerned that the Secretary-General has, thus far, neglected this critical opportunity. The UN Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation, which was invited to contribute to the Secretary-General's efforts to assemble this report, has termed the General Assembly's deliberate mandate to be - I quote - 'not appropriate' and "an apparent error' in need of formal correction.

"This is not only insensitive, but reveals that perhaps the UN itself has yet to come to terms, or even to merely acknowledge, its decisions on nuclear safety taken sixty years ago. This negative approach could preclude efforts to bring to the attention of this body important scientific work that has been done in assessing the consequences of the nuclear testing in the Marshall Islands. It is our hope that UN will have the courage and will to rise above the past and make a difference, rather than to allow itself to remain controlled by history, and make excuses. As I have said earlier, for decades, Marshallese leaders have returned to the UN to repeatedly speak of the legacy of the nuclear testing in our country. It is my hope that one day, a new generation of Marshallese leaders will come to this august body to speak no more of this sad legacy, rather to proclaim that the work is done - that all is well."

Unexploded weapons: "Unexploded ordnance from World War II, and oil leakage, is a persistent issue with our outer island communities, and poses threats to our human security, public health and environmental safety. We welcome the attention of the Pacific Island Forum leaders and join the call for assistance from international bodies and development partners."

Nuclear weapons: "The message is the same for nuclear weapons, global security and climate change - international law is not an empty promise."

Mauritania
H.E. Mr. Hamady Ould Hamady, Minister for Foreign Affairs
27 September 2011

Arms: [from UN summary] Organized crime, such as kidnapping, terrorism and drug, weapon and human trafficking, had been expanding for many years in the Sahara region. That was a threat to peace and stability in the region, and Mauritania’s security operations had responded firmly to threats of terrorist groups, succeeding in guaranteeing peace within and along its borders. In cooperation with neighbouring countries, it had put a stop to the activities of those terrorist groups and made it impossible for them to move freely.

Mauritius
H.E. Mr. Navinchandra Ramgoolam, Prime Minister
24 September 2011

Disarmament, WMD: "Disarmament is a major component of the international security strategy. The threat to humanity posed by the continued existence of nuclear and other weapons of mass destruction is of universal concern."

Disarmament and development: "Our failure to resolve the issue of disarmament continues to undermine global development and security."

Conventional weapons, nuclear disarmament: "A significant reduction in the production of conventional weapons and eventually a
world free of nuclear weapons is a goal that will only be achieved over time and that will require patience and perseverance. As a matter of fact, the international political environment is probably more conducive to the realisation of these goals now than it has ever been in the past."

Mexico
H.E. Mr. Felipe Calderón Hinojosa, President
21 September 2011

Arms trade treaty: "With respect to arms, it is necessary to find efficient international mechanisms that permit a regular manner of arms sales and movement. It is urgent, for example, to establish the best controls of the highest power in producer and consumer states, in order that there is not a continued increase in criminal arsenals. It is unjust and inhuman that the profit from the arms industry causes the death of thousands of people. In the United Nations we must forcefully continue the negotiations for an Arms Trade Treaty with the goal of avoiding the diversion of arms to prohibited activities through international norms."

Micronesia (Federated States of)
H.E. Mr. Emanuel Mori, President and Head of Government
23 September 2011

No relevant comments.

Moldova (Republic of)
H.E. Mr. Alexandru Cujba, Permanent Representative to the United Nations
27 September 2011

Nuclear safety: "We have also learned that natural calamities hit nations without discretion and in order to overcome the results of ecological disasters such as East Japan Earthquake and Fukushima nuclear accident, great flooding in Pakistan or severe drought and hunger in the Hom of Africa - common efforts are required, of both developed and developing states, the international community having a high task to strengthen its humanitarian and disaster response capabilities."

Monaco
H.E. Mr. José Badia, Government Counsellor, Foreign and Economic Affairs
26 September 2011

[unofficial translation]

Nuclear energy, nuclear safety: "While we strive to develop renewable energy sources, more respectful of our environment and our health, we cannot immediately renounce nuclear energy and oil. However, recently as we have seen with horror the disaster of Fukushima, we do not know if it will ever be possible to control all the risks that nuclear power causes, and we continue, moreover, burning hydrocarbons and ejecting their waste into the atmosphere. And these dangers are greatly endangering our collective security."

Mongolia
H.E. Mr. Elbegdorj Tsakhia, President
21 September 2011

Nuclear disarmament, nuclear energy: “We need to re-invigorate our resolve for a world free of nuclear weapons and exploit nuclear power solely for peaceful purposes.”

Nuclear energy: “The urgency and importance of strengthening safety and security of nuclear reactors was reminded by the tragic accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant last March. We commend the Secretary-General’s initiative to organize tomorrow a high level meeting to strengthen international measures on nuclear safety and security around the world.”

Nuclear weapon free zones: “The 2010 Non-proliferation treaty review conference gave a renewed impetus for expanding nuclear weapon free zones around the world. The proposed nuclear weapon free zone in the Middle East will contribute to the promotion of world peace.”

“Mongolia continues to work on further strengthening its internationally recognized nuclear weapon-free status. To this end, we are holding consultations with nuclear powers.”

Nuclear waste: “From this highly esteemed rostrum of the General Assembly I would like to underscore that there should be no doubt that Mongolia would in no way yield to dumping nuclear wastes on its territory. It should go without saying that in today's world any attempt to enforce such decisions will undoubtedly fail.”

Montenegro
H.E. Mr. Igor Lukšić, Prime Minister
24 September 2011

Nuclear non-proliferation, disarmament, CTBT: "Montenegro supports nuclear non-proliferation and objects further expansion in the number of countries that possess nuclear weapons. Moreover, we support all agreements of the nuclear powers on mutual reduction in the nuclear capacities, thus creating a safer word for the existing and future generations. To that end, I wish to thank the Secretary-General for the appeal he sent late last month, requesting all countries that have nuclear technology to adhere to the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty."

Cluster munitions: "I wish to emphasize that Montenegro has ratified the Convention on Cluster Munitions and that a bit less than one year since it came into effect, it destroyed all reserves of this type of weapons, thus confirming again its commitment to the principles of non-proliferation."

Morocco
H.E. Mr. Taïb Fassi Fihri, Minister for Foreign Affairs and Cooperation
26 September 2011

Nuclear safety: "The world is also challenged by recurrent natural disasters and nuclear accidents."

Mozambique
H.E. Mr. Armando Emilio Guebuza, President
21 September 2011

No relevant comments.

Myanmar
H.E. Mr. Wunna Maung Lwin, Minister for Foreign Affairs
27 September 2011

Nuclear disarmament, non-proliferaton, nuclear energy: "The Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty is the cornerstone of international efforts to prevent proliferation of nuclear weapons, nuclear disarmament and to promote cooperation and ensure access to nuclear energy. As a signatory to the NPT, Myanmar remains committed to the three pillars of the treaty. Being a strong advocate to nuclear disarmament, Myanmar has been tabling the resolution on nuclear disarmament every year since 1995 which enjoys wide support of the member states. Myanmar firmly opposes the proliferation and production of nuclear weapons and strongly supports any effort for the realization of the world free fiom threats of nuclear weapons and its byproducts."

Namibia
H.E. Mr. Hifikepunye Pohamba, President
23 September 2011

No relevant comments.

Nauru
H.E. Mr. Marcus Stephen, President
23 September 2011

No relevant comments.

Nepal
H.E. Mr. Baburam Bhattarai, Prime Minister
24 September 2011

Military spending: "How can we have sustainable peace in the world when there is so much of inequity, deprivation and marginalization around us? We have to deal With their root causes. How can one justify the spending of 1.5 trillion US dollars on war weapons every year while more than two billion people across the globe lack basic necessities of food, medicine, etc?"

Disarmament, WMD: "Nepal reiterates its call for general and complete disarmament of all weapons of mass destruction in a time bound manner."

Disarmament: "Nepal strongly believes that regional mechanisms complement efforts to promote the global disarmament agenda. The Regional Centre for Peace and Disarmament for Asia and the Pacific (RCPD) located in Kathmandu would be instrumental in revitalizing the "Kathmandu Process" to facilitate dialogues and deliberations for confidence building in the region."

Netherlands (The)
H.E. Mr. Uri Rosenthal, Minister for Foreign Affairs
26 September 2011

No relevant comments.

New Zealand
H.E. Mr. Jim McLay, Permanent Representative to the United Nations
27 September 2011

Disarmament: "We work to protect the health of people and their environment; but we must also enhance collective security by progressing the disarmament agenda."

NPT, nuclear disarmament: "Over the coming year, we must focus on full implementation of the Action Plan agreed at the 2010 Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) Review Conference. As coordinator for the New Agenda Coalition, a group of non-nuclear-weapon states committed to a nuclear-weapon-free world, New Zealand will shortly present a resolution highlighting work required to achieve that implementation during the coming NPT review cycle. We commend that resolution to you."

Conventional weapons, arms trade treaty: "There have been gains over the past year in respect of conventional disarmament; but we're yet to realise on these achievements. There's been pleasing progress towards an Arms Trade Treaty; but hard work remains. Next year's Diplomatic Conference must deliver a treaty establishing the highest possible common international standards for conventional arms transfers."

Small arms and light weapons: "We must also maintain a focus on small arms and light weapons, which, for many regions, are their 'weapons of mass destruction'. 2011 marks the 10th Anniversary of the UN Programme of Action on the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons. There's been much to celebrate, including the first Open-Ended Meeting of Government Experts, which I had the honour of chairing. But, next year's Review Conference must work to ensure the Programme delivers on its potential for keeping our communities safe."

Nicaragua
H.E. Mr. Samuel Santos López, Minister for Foreign Affairs
26 September 2011

Militarism: "At present, as before, we affirm that we do not accept the language of war between peoples; that we reject war as a means for the solution of the conflicts between States."

Nuclear safety: "Among these [threats to the planet], the Fukushima disaster in Japan has had the effect of bringing to the fore the hair-raising world risk of nuclear radiation. The Japanese crisis has rightly been described as 'a warless nuclear war'. Outstanding sc-ientists have recongized that its present and future repercussions, which as yet have not been fully determined, are more serious than those of the Chernobyl disaster. While expressing our solidarity with the government and the heroic people of Japan, with the victims of the earthquake that leveled their territory and with those affected by the Fukushima accident, we vehemently call on States with nuclear reactor installations to take all measures to avoid similar accidents which would gravely endanger people's health and the environment."

Disarmament: "We renew our commitment to the cause of general and complete disarmament."

Military spending, small arms and light weapons: "It is unjustifiable and unacceptable that the preseut world continues to increase its spending for the development and testing of all types of arms and to decrease spending for promotion of the life and development of human beings. While millions of persons suffer the effects of the economic and financial crisis, military spending in the world continues to skyrocket. During the last ten years, these expenditures have increased by 50 percent, rising to 1.5 trillion dollars. More than eight million small arms and more than 16 billion munitions are produced every year; this is equivalent to 2.5 munitions for every person on this planet. This arms proliferation causes irreparable direct and indirect harm to the populace and their economy. We can end this proliferation if we are determined. It is not true that the arms sector is of vital importance to the world economy. In fact, despite what small arms producers would have us believe, their trade and trade in munitions and other components represents less than 0.01 percent of the world's industrial transactions."

Arms: "The factors termed as the new threats to security have become a true assault to most of our countries. Drug trafficking, human trafficking, illegal arms trafficking, and the trafficking of immigrants, among others, constitute an ethical, political and economic challenge for Central America which is presently stigmatized by international reports as one ofthe most violent areas on Earth."

Niger
H.E. Mr. Mahamadou Issoufou, President
23 September 2011

[unofficial transcript]

Arms: "This threat as we know, the criminal organizations trafficking in arms, drugs, humans, etc... All these threats are compounded by the Libyan crisis. Indeed, arms depots were looted in Libya. These weapons are now scattered throughout the Sahel-Saharan Africa with the risk of falling into the hands terrorists. Taking into account the regional threats, Niger is committed to pool its efforts with other countries, particularly in the sub-region to deal with the situation."

Nigeria
H.E. Mr. Goodluck Ebele Jonathan, President, Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces
21 September 2011

Militarism: “For too long, the international community has focused too little attention on mediation and preventive diplomacy and far too much effort and resources on military aspects of peace and security. Yet, measures to address the root cause of conflict, including dialogue and mediation, can be far more effective as means to achieving sustainable peace and stability.”

“As I see it, our goal should always be to present the peaceful alternative as a less costly and effective way of achieving political and social objectives. I also believe that in addition to other traditional tools of preventive diplomacy, democracy and good governance can be particularly important in building a just, equitable and inclusive society. By focusing on mediation as a tool for conflict prevention, we are able to address the real triggers of conflict, without which we cannot achieve sustainable solutions.

Small arms and light weapons: “Mr. President, if your idea of resolving conflicts through mediation is to succeed, then the problem of trafficking in small arms and light weapons must be frontally tackled. The proliferation of Small Arms and Light Weapons is particularly worrisome, due to their easy accessibility and availability to unauthorized persons and groups, who in turn have used these arms to create instability and insecurity in much of the countries in the developing world. Even worse, the proliferation of these weapons has proved handy in the hands of terrorists.”

Arms trade treaty, small arms and light weapons: “This explains our commitment to, and preoccupation with, the actualization of an Arms Trade Treaty (ATT) that robustly addresses the illicit trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons which, as we all know, are among the major causes of destabilization and conflict in West Africa. The danger of proliferation of, and illicit trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons informed Nigeria’s decision to co-sponsor Resolution 61/89 of 2006, the principal objective being to provide a legally binding international instrument for the trade in conventional arms. We will continue to support all initiatives towards the realization of an Arms Trade Treaty in 2012. I call on all Member States of the UN to join in this endeavour.”

Norway
H.E. Mr. Espen Barth Eide, Deputy Minister for Foreign Affairs
27 September 2011

No relevant comments.

Oman
H.E. Mr. Yousef Bin Al-Alawi Bin Abdulla, Minister of State for Foreign Affairs
26 September 2011

Nuclear disarmament, non-proliferation: "A series of High-Level Meetings and international conferences were held for over three decades in an effort to achieve progress in the talks on nuclear disarmament and nonproliferation. As we emphasize our position to support the non-proliferation, we hope to translate what has been reached at the Review Conference held in New York in May 2010 to a practical reality."

NWFZ, nucear energy, Israel's nuclear programme: "My country hopes that the Conference of 2012 would declare the region of the Middle East as a region free of nuclear weapons and weapons of mass destruction and it should take into consideration the legitimate right of states to use the nuclear technology for peaceful purposes in accordance with the NPT and the auspices of the International Atornic Energy Agency (IAEA). In this context, my country calls upon Israel to respond to international demands to ratify the NPT and to allow the IAEA to inspect all its nuclear facilities and to present its reports."

Iran's nuclear programme: "Concerning the Iranian nuclear file, the Sultanate of Oman urges all parties to continue negotiations and dialogue to find a peaceful way to preserve the security and the stability in this important region of the world."

Pakistan
H.E. Ms. Hina Rabbani Khar, Minister for Foreign Affairs
27 September 2011

Nuclear weapons: "The reality of a nuclearised South Asia, imposes on both Pakistan and India, the onerous responsibility to work together for creating mutual confidence, avoiding an arms race, and enhancing strategic stability. We look forward to moving in this direction in the dialogue process."

Disarmament, non-proliferation: "We also attach importance to the United Nations work in the field of disarmament and non proliferation. Our collective endeavours in these fields could best be effective if we could enhance security, for all, and pursue approaches that are not selective or discriminatory. Normative work must be premised on principles."

Palau
H.E. Mr. Johnson Toribiong, President
22 September 2011

Nuclear radiation: "I was involved in writing Palau's Constitution, which bans the presence of any nuclear material in our territory. We are proud to be the first in the world to make such a prohibition. But the supreme law of our land cannot protect us from potential radiation coming from outside our borders. We fear the possibility that some day our fish may be unsafe to eat and that our water may be unsafe to drink. And so we ask the world to redouble its efforts to eliminate the threat of nuclear radiation."

Explosive weapons: "Once again, I bring it to the world's attention that fierce battles fought by foreign armies on Palau's islands during World War II left explosives scattered across our land and in our waters. Some of these explosives are still live. I continue to appeal to the conscience of the world to help us remove this danger from our midst."

Palestine
H.E. Mr. Mahmoud Abbas, President of the Palestinan Authority
23 September 2011

No relevant comments.

Panama
H.E. Mr. Francisco Alvarez de Soto, Deputy Minister for Foreign Affairs
27 September 2011

No relevant comments.

Papua New Guinea
H.E. Mr. Peter O’Neill, Prime Minister
24 September 2011

NWFZ: "The Pacific remains a nuclear weapons free zone. We call upon other member states, those who are not signatories to sign and ratify the Rarotonga Treaty."

Small arms and light weapons: "The illegal use, abuse and the dangerous proliferation of small arms and light weapons continue to hamper the development aspirations of many developing countries. We therefore call upon the international community to seriously deal with outstanding issues such as the illegal supply and trade of small arms. Our Government will do all it can to accelerate the implementation ofthe recommendations of our Gun Summit Report."

Paraguay
H.E. Mr. Fernando Lugo Méndez, President
21 September 2011

No relevant comments.

Peru
H.E. Mr. Ollanta Humala Tasso, President
22 September 2011

[unofficial translation]

Arms: "We need greater financial and intelligence capabilities to detect money laundering and more effective controls on inputs and precursors, and in the level of security, we need control of the supply of weapons to cartels and gangs that daily threaten public safety."

Philippines (The)
H.E. Mr. Libran N. Cabactulan, Permanent Representative to the United Nations
27 September 2011

Nuclear disarmament, conventional weapons, small arms and light weapons: "We must continue our work in eliminating nuclear weapons and curtailing the illicit trade in conventional weapons and small and light arms, to preserve peace and our very existence."

Nuclear disarmament: "The Philippines believes in the importance of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty for the success of our work, as the only legally binding instrument that calls for the elimination of nuclear weapons. The successful 2010 NPT Review Conference showed the collective resolve of States Parties to move further forward in ridding the world of these weapons."

NWFZ: "We have already agreed to convene a conference by 2012 on the establishment of a Middle East zone free of nuclear weapons and other weapons of mass destruction. The holding of this conference will take us closer to our goal."

Poland
H.E. Mr. Bronislaw Komorowski, President
22 September 2011

Arms control: "The progress, which the world has experienced after the Cold War in the fields of human rights, international security and arms control, environmental protection, sustainable development and many other areas, is in its major part due to the initiatives and the involvement of the European Union."

WMD terrorism: "The challenges facing the international community are considerable. The last decade in the international life has been turbulent and difficult. Its beginning was marked by the tragic terrorist attacks here in New York, on September 11th, 2001. A shadow of global terrorism that one day may result in the use of a weapon of mass destruction has hung over the world. Fortunately, our worst fears have not materialized. It was possible to significantly reduce the terrorist threat."

Militarism: "At the same time, the atmosphere of the war on terror did not help in fostering trust and strengthening the international stability as well as solving other important problems. In the last decade we have had to deal with increasing tensions between richer and poorer, between more and less developed countries and regions of the world."

Disarmament, nuclear weapons, conventional weapons, arms race, Conference on Disarmament: "Poland has a living interest in the progress of reduction of nuclear and conventional armaments. We are concerned about the prospect of returning to the arms race, as well as the increase of spending on armaments on a global scale. More attention should be paid to the categories of weapons which kill most people in the world, which cause conflicts, mostly internal, and which are the main factors of instability in various regions of the world. The United Nations Conference on Disarmament should be reformed in this respect. We provide full support for the efforts of the Secretary General going in that direction."

Portugal
H.E. Mr. Pedro Passos Coelho, Prime Minister
24 September 2011

No relevant comments.

Qatar
H.H. Sheikh Hamad bin Khalifa Al-Thani, Amir
21 September 2011

No relevant comments.

Republic of Korea
H.E. Mr. Lee Myung-bak, President
21 September 2011

WMD: “Today, while still struggling with conventional security threats, the international community faces new types of security threat such as the spread of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) and the threat of terrorism.”

Nuclear terrorism: “The greatest threat of all perhaps emanates from nuclear terrorism. International cooperation is now needed more than ever to prevent nuclear terrorism. Following the First Nuclear Security Summit in Washington last year, the Second Nuclear Security Summit will be held in Seoul in March next year. The Republic of Korea is making every effort to ensure that the summit will constitute a valuable opportunity for the international community to build a more solid system of international cooperation necessary to prevent nuclear terrorism.”

Non-proliferation, WMD, nuclear weapons, missiles: “The international community must strengthen its non-proliferation regime in order to prevent the proliferation ofnuclear, biological and chemical weapons and long range missiles.”

Nuclear energy: “To protect our environment and promote growth at the same time, we must use less fossil fuel and more renewable energy, while promoting the use of safer nuclear energy.”

DPRK nuclear programme: “The North Korean nuclear threat poses significant challenges to peace on the Korean Peninsula, Northeast Asia and beyond. The Republic of Korea has consistently exerted diplomatic efforts in cooperation with the international community for the last twenty years to achieve the denuclearization of the Korean Peninsula, and will continue to do so.”

Romania
H.E. Mr. Romulus Doru Costea, Deputy Minister for Foreign Affairs
27 September 2011

WMD, conventional weapons, nuclear disarmament, non-proliferation: "We reaffirm our will to act in cooperation with partners for a global and coherent approach on the multilateral risks and threats to the international peace and security, particularly those arising from the proliferation of mass destruction and conventional weapons. The best way to reduce the risks of the use of nuclear arms and materials, in particular by the non-state actors, is to irreversibly eliminate the nuclear arsenals and to apply a strict framework for non-proliferation. We support and we call all States to consider long-term responsible implication on this matter and to consider the global security interest above any others."

Disarmament, non-proliferation, arms control: "We are all familiar with the current multilateral framework that governs non-proliferation, disarmament and arms control. All treaties and conventions have proved their use so far. Yet, more is needed to increase the efficiency of their implementation and observance. We stand ready to work with others in order to achieve this key goal for the global security architecture."

Russian Federation
H.E. Mr. Sergey V. Lavrov, Minister for Foreign Affairs
27 September 2011

Nuclear disarmament, New START: "Like in economics, the logic of joint consolidated actions should prevail on matters of security and elimination of surplus weapons worldwide. Russia and the US made another important step towards nuclear disarmament when they signed the START Treaty and began its implementation. Its practical realization will allow us to make sure that the Treaty is effective and viable and to see how its fundamental principles are implemented. We call on all States with nuclear weapons capability to join the US-Russian efforts. We believe that further progress in nuclear arms reductions is possible only on a multilateral basis."

Missile defence, conventional weapons, PAROS: "Moreover, the progress in this area [nuclear disarmament] is inseparable from coordinated efforts to move forward on all aspects of strengthening international security and strategic stability. This includes the development of universally acceptable approaches to the missile defense issues, accounting of the impact of strategic conventional arms, prevention of weaponization of space, and elimination of qualitative and quantitative imbalances of conventional arms."

Missile defence: "Deployment of strategic missile defense elements in various parts of the world alters the overall configuration of international security. It is not enough to make statements that the increase in global missile defense capabilities would not undermine the basics of strategic stability. The issue is way too serious. We need solid legal guarantees that missile defense potential will actually be adequate to the declared objectives and will not disrupt global and regional balances. This equally holds true both for Europe, and for the Asia-Pacific region, where ballistic missile defense is becoming a factor that affects the strategic environment."

Non-proliferation, NPT, CTBT, IAEA Safeguards: "It is of primary importance for us to prevent the undermining of the non-proliferation regime. We call for universalization of the Treaty on Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, strengthening of the IAEA safeguards system, and entry into force of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty."

NWFZ: "Russia has been one of the main initiators of the proposal to convene in 2012 a conference on establishing a zone free of weapons of mass destruction and means of its delivery in the Middle East, and is now intensively working together with its partners on the preparation of this important forum."

DPRK and Iran's nuclear programmes: "The early resolution to the nuclear problems of Iran and the Korean Peninsula would contribute to the strengthening of the non-proliferation regime. We see no alternative to their political and diplomatic settlement and take concrete steps to create conditions for the resumption of negotiations. We call on all the partners to address these tasks with utmost responsibility."

Nuclear safety: "The situation around Japan's Fukushima-1 Nuclear Power Plant has highlighted the need to improve the international legal framework in order to ensure safety of nuclear power facilities. The Russian Federation has made proposals to enhance the mechanisms of Conventions on Nuclear Safety and the Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident, as well as to strengthen the relevant IAEA norms. We urge support for these initiatives."

Missile defence, arms control: "Priority should be given to equal and indivisible security, predictability, transparency, and mutual respect, taking into account each other's interests. This is exactly the aim of President D.Medvedev's initiative to sign a treaty on European security – its practical implementation would allow to finally draw the line under the post-Cold War period, to establish a universal and clear framework for a reliable solution to such issues, as the NMD and arms control, and to create a common space of security and development without dividing lines."

Rwanda
H.E. Mr. Paul Kagame, President
21 September 2011

No relevant comments.