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UNGA Disarmament Index 2008: A–G

This is an index of all references made to issues of disarmament, peace, and security, made in the 63rd General Debate of the United Nations General Assembly from 23–29 September 2008. Included in this index are all references made to arms control, disarmament, multilateralism, nuclear energy, security, proliferation, the arms trade, and nuclear and conventional weapons.

A–G | H–R | S–Z

UN Secretary-General | UN General Assembly President
Afghanistan
| Albania | Algeria | Andorra | Angola | Antigua and Barbuda | Argentina | Armenia | Australia | Austria | Azerbaijan
Bahamas | Bahrain | Bangladesh | Barbados | Belarus | Belgium | Belize | Benin | Bhutan | Bolivia | Bosnia and Herzegovina | Botswana | Brazil | Brunei Darussalam | Bulgaria | Burkina Faso | Burundi
Cambodia | Cameroon | Canada | Cape Verde | Central African Republic | Chad | Chile | China | Colombia | Comoros | Congo | Costa Rica | Côte d'Ivoire | Croatia | Cuba | Cyprus | Czech Republic
Democratic People's Republic of Korea | Democratic Republic of the Congo | Denmark | Djibouti | Dominica | Dominican Republic
Ecuador | Egypt | El Salvador | Equatorial Guinea | Eritrea | Estonia | Ethiopia | European Union
Fiji Islands
| Finland | France
Gabon | Gambia | Georgia | Germany | Ghana | Greece | Grenada | Guatemala | Guinea | Guinea-Bissau | Guyana

Secretary-General
H.E. Mr. Ban Ki-moon, Secretary-General
23 September 2008

North Korea's nuclear programme: “I note the progress in the 6-party talks on the Korean Peninsula and urge that all agreements be implemented. And I call again on Iran to comply with Security Council resolutions and cooperate fully with the International Atomic Energy Agency.”

Iran's nuclear programme: “I call again on Iran to comply with Security Council resolutions and cooperate fully with the International Atomic Energy Agency.”

Peace and security: “It is essential to act upon the principle that justice is a pillar of peace, security and development.”

Terrorism, disarmament, and non-proliferation: “We are well-aware of the many challenges to peace and security around the world. I am thinking of global terrorism, and the enduring importance of disarmament and nonproliferation.”

President of the General Assembly
H.E. Mr. Miguel d'Escoto Brockmann
23 September 2008

Disarmament and security: “However, if we look at the Organization’s progress in fulfilling the primary purposes for which it was founded, we must admit that in terms of eliminating war, achieving disarmament and ensuring international security, we have failed.”

Military spending: “More than half the world's people languish in hunger and poverty while at the same time more and more money is spent on weapons, wars, luxuries and totally superfluous and unnecessary things.”

Militarism and terrorism: “In addition to the problem of hunger, poverty and high food prices, there are many other problems whose human origin can no longer be doubted. These include ... the arms build-up, terrorism....”

Closing statement, 29 September 2008:
Multilateralism: “Call it compassion. Call it brotherhood and sisterhood. Call it stewardship. Call it solidarity. The idea is the same in all parts of the world. We owe it to each other. We owe it to Mother Earth, who is struggling to survive our abuses. We owe it to succeeding generations. Let us join forces to assure that we rise to these challenges together, setting aside our petty differences. We can, we must make a difference in the months ahead.”

Afghanistan
H.E. Mr. Hamid Karzai, President
24 September 2008

Terrorism: “Since the last time we gathered here in this great hall, we have passed a year of great hopes and grave fears; we have witnessed ... with disbelief the brutal, wholesale slaughter of innocent people at the hands of terrorists in Afghanistan, Pakistan, India, Algeria and several other parts of the world.

“Since I spoke at this podium in the last general assembly, my country Afghanistan has grappled with a number of important challenges, none more troubling than the problem of international terrorism. Terrorist forces have significantly increased their attacks and brutality enjoyed freedom in their sanctuaries.

“While Afghanistan has borne the brunt of terrorist violence, the scourge has now spread like a wildfire across the wider region. In Pakistan, where until recently extremist circles remained mainly focused on destabilizing Afghanistan, today terrorist violence is also directed within the Pakistani territory and against the Pakistani people. Daily acts of intimidation and violence against communities in Afghanistan and Pakistan in particular on both sides of the Durand Line; killing of political tribal leaders and burning of schools are the upshots of the continued spawning and spread of terrorism and extremism in the region. The callous attack on the Marriot hotel in Islamabad over the weekend, the bombing of the Indian Embassy in Kabul, and the terrorist attacks in the Indian cities of Bangalore and Ahmedabad were the most disturbing demonstration of terrorists’ growing reach.

“Undoubtedly, terrorism will not go away until we dismantle the elaborate institutional support terrorists enjoy in the region and eliminate their secure sanctuaries. This will be possible if we engage in a sincere regional and international cooperation.”

Terrorism: “I assure my brothers, President Zardari and Prime Minister Gilani that Afghanistan stands ready to take several steps for each single step that Pakistan will take to address the challenge of radicalism and terrorism.

“To the extent that terrorism in our region continues to be a global threat, evolving in nature and tactics the struggle against it must continue unabated. “

Terrorism: “To this end, I call for redoubling of efforts by the international community aimed at enabling the Afghan national security institutions, both the Army and the Police, to take on a greater share of the war against terrorism and the protection of our people.”

Terrorism: “Whereas military endeavor at the regional and international levels remains a primary response to the threat of terrorism, success will only be possible if the local population is empowered to confront it. Therefore, while terrorism and a persistent environment of insecurity are at work to subvert Afghanistan’s economic growth, we must do what it takes to win the battle of Afghanistan’s economic development.”

African Group
H.E. Mr. Jakaya Mrisho Kikwete, President of the United Republic of Tanzania
23 September 2008

No relevant references.

Albania
H.E. Mr. Bamir Topi, President
24 September 2008

Multilateralism: “Please allow me to confirm the commitment of Albania to a strong and coherent United Nations, capable to successfully tackle the new challenges, which we are actually facing. We fully support the joint initiatives and actions aimed at strengthening collective peace and security in order to reach the sustainable and long-term development, to promote human rights and international cooperation, dialogue and consensus.”

Multilateralism: “The causes of this crisis are numerous and complex and as such they demand a multi-level coherent and well coordinated response.”

Multilateralism: “Albania pays particular attention to the strengthening of multilateral regional relations.”

Terrorism and multilateralism: “The global fight against terrorism, especially through guaranteeing an effective response to this collective threat requires the United Nations to continue to play a very important role. Albania has very actively met its obligations and responsibilities in the global fight against terrorism in compliance to the United Nations General Assembly Strategy against Terrorism, which was unanimously passed on September 8th, 2006.”

Terrorism and multilateralism: “Challenges such as the fight against terrorism, organized crime, arms proliferation and border management have an interlinked character and can only be overcome through joint actions, initiatives and commitment. We will continue to the play same constructive role to our benefit and to that of the whole region.”

Peace and security: “Albania is working to enhance the domestic capacities to enable a greater presence aiding global peace and security by deepening the cooperation with the United Nations in the field of peacekeeping operations.”

Algeria
H.E. Mr. Mourad Medelci, Minister of Foreign Affairs for Algeria
27 September 2008

Waiting translation.

Angola
H.E. Mr. Joao Bernardo de Miranda, Minister of External Relations
26 September 2008

Terrorism, small arms and light weapons: “South-South cooperation, including triangular cooperation, have the potential to contribute towards the eradication of poverty through the establishment of partnerships for sustainable development, trade, investment, tourism, crime prevention, combating drug trafficking, illicit trade in small arms and light weapons, and transnational organize crime.”

Peace: “Armed conflicts continue to absorb resources from both the international community and the parties involved. These resources are better for the well being of the populations in affected territories. However, for the first time in many years, Africa is experiencing a significant reduction in conflict, allowing for an improvement of its economic indicators. The progress in the peace process in Cote d’Ivoire, as well as the consolidation of peace under way in Sierra Leone and in Liberia have brought about a new aura of hope.”

Antigua and Barbuda
H.E. The Honourable Winston Baldwin Spencer, Prime Minister, Chair of G77 and China group
25 September 2008

Peace, security, and multilateralism: “The Sixty-third Session of the General Assembly is taking place against a backdrop of escalating challenges to international peace and security; unalleviated poverty and diminishing food supplies for much of the world's population; mega disasters induced by climate change; and impending meltdown in the world's largest economy, These times and circumstances call for a heightened sense of urgency and a stronger will among all nations to work with and through the United Nations in embracing multilateralism in the fullest sense.”

Small arms and light weapons: “In similar context, Mr. President, vulnerable developing societies are victims to tihe globalisation of crime; notably in the havoc wrought by handguns in the possession of criminal elements; narco-trafficking targeted, essentially, to markets in developed countries; and the deportation of criminals to our shores.”

Multilateralism: “I firmly believe that the United Nations would be a more potent entity and the world could be an infinitely better place if the next President of the United States, in his inaugural address, gave an irrevocable commitment to multilateralism, in all its dimensions.”

Security and multilateralism: “The United Nations - and more broadly the international community - has spent much time and other resources over two decades identifying, defining and coming to common understanding on major challenges to the global society. We have passed resolutions and declarations in which we have defined the challenges, identified the resources needed and resolved and committed to meeting and overcoming the challenges as a global community through international cooperation, In some cases, we have agreed and set binding timeframes to achieve results. Many of these commitments, time tables and proposals for action have been repeated in annual resolutions of the General Assembly. Unfortunately, many have become more technically complicated and with less and less political commitment to unified and mutually reinforcing irnplementation action.”

Multilateralism: “Mr. President, we recognize that each country has the primary responsibility for its development. However, the international community must create a conducive, sustainable, fair and predictable environment and provide the necessary policy space to stimulate and facilitate the discharge of this responsibility. We must all move immediately into implementation mode - a mode where our focus is on how to do rather than how not to do. We have some important strategic opportunities ahead to begin to do so.”

Argentina
H.E. Ms. Cristina Fernández de Kirchner, President
23 September 2008

Waiting translation.

Armenia
H.E. Mr. Serzh Sargsyan, President
25 September 2008

War: “Nowadays the unsettling expression “Cold War’ has emerged again. I hold the view that the main task of this 63rd session should be a joint demand to unequivocally rule out this kind of developments. The memories of the previous “Cold War” are pretty much fresh, and its consequences are still there.”

Terrorism and multilateralism: “We continue to respond to the horizontal, netlike challenges of today such as terrorism, international crime, drug trafficking and others, through the institutions which are envisaged predominantly to smooth over the controversies among the states. Regional cooperation can become one of the essential means to address these new challenges.”

Military spending and militarism: “If any country increases its military budget and brags about it, if limitations on weapons stipulated by the international agreements are being violated and done so openly, if a country signed a cease-fire agreement, which constitutes an international responsibility, but on nay occasions threatens to resume military actions, it must receive a rapid and firm response.”

Australia
H.E. The Honourable Kevin Rudd, Prime Minister
25 September 2008

Terrorism and security: “The globalisation of security—arising from the searing impact of September 11 when the obscenity visited on this great city caused all of us to conclude that terrorism was the enemy of all civilised humanity, not just of some nations.”

Terrorism and multilateralism: “The United Nations, and we its member states, have a responsibility to protect the nations and the people of the world. We must protect people from terrorism. And this must include commitment to support those nations in the frontline of the struggle. Australia is working closely with the Government of Afghanistan and our global partners to bring security and stability to Afghanistan. We can never again allow that nation to become a haven for terrorists.”

WMD: “Australia is also an active contributor to global efforts to prevent the spread of weapons of mass destruction.”

CTBT: “We continue to urge nations to sign and ratify the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty so that it can enter into force.”

North Korea and Iran’s nuclear programmes: “We remain concerned that states such as Iran and North Korea continue to defy the international community and fail to comply with demands for a full declaration and accounting of their nuclear programs. Their actions are undermining the global consensus to contain the spread of nuclear weapons.”

Non-proliferation, disarmament, and nuclear weapons: “This year the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) celebrates its 40th anniversary. As a middle power and as a long-standing member of the NPT, Australia is committed to working with other nations towards the goal of the eventual abolition of nuclear weapons. Australia—with our close friend and partner Japan—has established an International Commission on Nuclear Non-Proliferation and Disarmament to create the political and policy consensus necessary to elicit real result on non-proliferation and disarmament in advance of the 2010 Review Conference.”

Multilateralism: “Our membership of the United Nations is a key pillar of our foreign policy. Our priorities are regional, but our interests are global. We work with partners around the world to meet shared challenges. Through our membership of the United Nations, we are committed to using creative middle power diplomacy to help overcome the great challenges of our age. Challenges which lie beyond the power of individual nation states to resolve. Challenges which can only be solved by unprecedented cooperation between states.”

Austria
H.E. Ms Ursula Plassnik Federal Minister for European and International Affairs
26 September 2008

WMD: “Armed conflicts, climate change, poverty, hunger, and the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction are the bleak challenges we face today...”

Multilateralism: “A sense of shared responsibility and true partnership based on equality are the key qualities that must guide us in our efforts to meet these challenges.”

Peace: “Nowadays, some speak about the “peace – justice dilemma”. I remain convinced that peace and justice are complementary objectives, both equally essential. There can be no lasting peace without justice, and international justice will serve its purpose most effectively if it helps societies advance reconciliation and overcome the wounds of the past.”

Small arms and light weapons: “With some 500,000 victims each year, small arms and light weapons (SALW) are today’s ‘real weapons of mass destruction’. Africa is the continent most heavily affected by this problem. Together with her African partners, Austria works for real progress on the destruction of small arms as well as on the fight against illicit arms trade. We also cooperate in developing suitable legal instruments.”

Cluster munitions: “Austria is also deeply involved in establishing an international legally binding ban on cluster munitions. The Convention on Cluster Munitions that we adopted in Dublin this May is a milestone in the field of disarmament and humanitarian law. Austria will sign the Convention in Oslo on 3 December 2008. I appeal to all other countries to sign as soon as possible so that this treaty can enter into force swiftly.”

Nuclear energy and nuclear fuel cycle: “The need to prevent nuclear proliferation at a time when an increasing number of countries are looking towards nuclear power as a means to produce energy calls for courageous and creative solutions. Austria has presented a proposal in the framework of the NPT and the IAEA which aims at the comprehensive multilateralisation of the nuclear fuel cycle. The goal is a fair system under which all States who wish to receive nuclear fuel for an exclusively peaceful usage can do so under equal conditions through the IAEA.”

Iran’s nuclear programme: “With regard to the Iranian nuclear programme we are convinced that the double-track approach is the best way forward. At the same time, it is indispensable that Iran fully complies with the relevant Security Council resolutions. In this context we commend and strongly support the efforts of IAEA Director General ElBaradei.”

Peace and security: “Without peace and security there can be no sustainable development and there is no security without human security. Human trafficking, drugs, proliferation of weapons, unemployment and crime—they all affect the very cohesion of our societies.”

Multilateralism: “Small and medium-sized countries have a specific interest in an international system based on effective multilateralism and the rule of law. They form the backbone of the United Nations. They can make a difference and act as driving force on many issues beneficial to the world community.”

Multilateralism: “Since joining the United Nations more than 50 years ago Austria has constantly worked for multilateral solutions to global challenges. Our candidature for a non-permanent seat on the United Nations Security Council is one expression of our determination to serve the World Organization. This is the most important responsibility that can be entrusted to a member of the United Nations. We stand ready to assume this responsibility and ask you for your support. We will work for common solutions to our common global challenges in a sense of true partnership.”

Azerbaijan
H.E. M. Elmar Maharram oglu Mammadyarov, Minister for Foreign Affairs
27 September 2008

Multilateralism: “The effectiveness of international security system impacts on the authority of the United Nations. When the agreement among the Security Council members on the approaches to overcome the challenges to the world peace seems elusive, then it seriously impacts on the common security and credibility of the United Nations. We shall respect our shared values and accept the restraints inherent in those values in order to find an approach that is based on a global consensus. The UN Security Council shall fully realize its primary responsibility for the collective management of threats that transcends national boundaries and have implications on international security. All of us must strictly follow the UN Charter as a unique instrument of international relations.”

Peace: “Protection and promotion of human rights is one of the central duties of the international community. Today, it is not merely a question of protecting individuals but is fundamental for promoting peace and stability across the globe.”

Bahamas
H.E. The Right Honourable Hubert Alexander Ingraham, Prime Minister and Minister of Finance
26 September 2008

Nuclear Waste: “And, the threats to our environment from climate change are exacerbated by the threat created by the continued and transshipment of nuclear waste through the waters surrounding my country and other Caribbean states. I renew the call for an end to this potentially perilous activity.”

Terrorism: “International peace and security is important to us all. The Bahamas fully supported the General Assembly’s adoption in September 2006 of the United Nations Global Counter-Terrorism Strategy as a framework for collective action to prevent and combat terrorism.”

Terrorism and peace: “The Bahamas condemns terrorism in all its forms and manifestations; and we call for, and commit to, the full implementation of a culture of peace, justice and human development, and respect for all religions and cultures.”

Terrorism: “I am pleased to inform of my Government’s ratification, since taking office last year, of the United Nations Convention Against Corruption, the International Convention on the Suppression of Terrorist Bombings and the United Nations Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime and its three Protocols. The Bahamas commends the Secretary General’s initiative in organizing the first-ever UN Symposium on Support for the Victims of Terrorism.”

Militarism: “Escalating acts of crime and violence, civil unrest, wars and internal conflicts around the world continue to threaten our efforts to create a just and peaceful international environment.”

Small arms and light weapons: “Yet, the meteoric rise in the illicit trafficking in drugs, small arms and light weapons, illegal migration, and human trafficking through our sub-region creates a formidable challenge to the national security and socio-economic growth and development of our countries. The Bahamas reiterates the call made my Caricom last July for the illicit brokering in small arms and light weapons to be addressed in a holistic, transparent and legally-binding manner, with renewed commitments for effective and enhanced safeguards.”

Bahrain
H.E. Mr. Shaikh Khalid Bin Ahmed Bin Mohamed Al-Khalifa, Minister for Foreign Affairs
27 September 2008

Nuclear energy: “The use of peaceful nuclear energy has become a preferred option for many countries, and the Kingdom of Bahrain hence shares this interest with the international community. Therefore, future agreements on the use of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes must be made within a strengthened nonproliferation regime, with improved safeguards and an expanded verification mechanism, in order to ensure that our peoples are not put at risk. Indeed, a highlight of the Supreme Council of the GCC, last December, was the acknowledgment of the right of countries of the region to seek nuclear expertise, and to possess nuclear energy for peaceful purposes, in close cooperation with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA).

“Given their universal effects and implications, energy and its various sources are in need of a holistic, global approach. Yet, they are dealt with in a fragmented, piecemeal manner. This unsatisfactory situation leads us to suggest the establishment of a truly global energy organization. This would bring a joint international perspective to determining the role and usage of hydrocarbon energy, nuclear power, and new and renewable energy sources and will introduce innovative solutions to reduce pollution and greenhouse gas emissions.”

Multilateralism: “The fact is that multilateral cooperation is fundamental to addressing these challenges, as no country alone can solve such issues and crises, nor isolate itself from their consequences.”

Terrorism: “We must exert our utmost efforts, to address weaknesses such as the threats to the international security system from a whole range of sources, including extremists, terrorists, drug traffickers, money launderers or intellectual property pirates. We need to develop collective security arrangements that will unite and bring together our security efforts, while guaranteeing respect of the existing borders between states and non-encroachment on their sovereignty. On the issue of terrorism, we consider terrorism to have many faces—be it in the form of the heinous crime which struck Islamabad a few days ago, be it or in the form of agitation and instigation from a distance, or be it in other forms. We should be clear in confronting terrorism in a comprehensive manner, so as to defeat it, both in the field and ideologically. We believe that if there is a battle against terrorism, it should be a comprehensive battle by all to rid us of this evil.”

Iran’s nuclear programme: “The Kingdom of Bahrain therefore reiterates its call for a peaceful solution to the Iranian nuclear file to avoid the scourge of war, and to enhance world peace and stability.”

WMD Free Zone in the Middle East, nuclear energy: “Moreover, there is an urgent need for the Middle East, including the Gulf region, to be free from weapons of mass destruction, including nuclear weapons, while safeguarding the rights of countries to the peaceful use of nuclear energy, in accordance with the safeguards agreements of the IAEA.”

Peace: “As Arabs, we accept peace as a strategic option, committed to legitimacy, and to concluding past conflicts and hostility, opening instead a new chapter for an historic rapprochement between the peoples of the region towards a better future, dominated by understanding, stability, and prosperity.”

Bangladesh
H.E. Mr. Dr. Fakhruddin Ahmed, Honourable Chief Adviser of the Caretaker Government
26 September 2008

No relevant references.

Barbados
H.E. Mr. David Thompson, Prime Minister and Minister for Finance, Economic Affairs and Development, Labour, Civil Service and Energy
26 September 2008

Peace (quoting the Right Excellent Errol Barrow): “We will support genuine efforts at world peace, because our society is stable.... We shall not involve ourselves in sterile ideologial wranglings because we are exponents not of the diplomacy of power, but of the diplomacy of peace and prosperity.”

Terrorism: “We will partner with our fellow Caribbean states to ... secure our borders from the threats of drugs and arms trafficking, money laundering and terrorism.”

Peace: “We are fervent advocates of the notion of the Caribbean as a zone of peace and we view with great concern any action, from whatever quarter, that seeks to reintroduce the anachronism of cold-war rivalry into our peaceful regional community of nations.”

Multilateralism: “And finally, because we are a small responsible member of the international community, and we believe in the positive role that small states can play in advancing the cause of international peace and equitable economic and social development, we rededicate ourselves to the building of an international system that operates on the principle of multilateralism and that respects the sovereign equality of all states and the tenets of genuine non-alignment.”

Belarus
H.E. Mr. Andrei Dapkuinas, Permanent Representative of Belarus to the United Nations
29 September 2008

Multilateralism: “Progress in ensuring greater role and authority of the General Assembly and enhancing its impact on world affairs could be possible only when every Member State would be sure of its modest but positive contribution to the tackling of global problems receiving an attentive and unbiased consideration by the Assembly.”

Belgium
H.E. Mr. Karel De Gucht, Minister for Foreign Affairs
27 September 2008

Waiting translation.

Belize
H.E. Mr. Wilfred P. Elrington, Attorney General, Minister of Foreign Affairs and Foreign Trade
29 September 2008

Multilateralism: “What Gordon Brown speaks to and what many of the leaders in this General Debate have highlighted is the global leadership challenge we face. In addressing this challenge, we would propose that we must first examine how our multilateral institution function. Belize holds the view that the way forward is for the United Nations to concentrate its efforts on convincing the leaders and peoples of the developed world that the security, development and wellbeing of all peoples of the world affords the best guarantee for their own safety, security and development and ultimately their very survival.

Peace: “The United Nations still represents the great hope for all our peoples. The principles upon which it was founded and the objectives for which it was formed, are no less relevant today than they were in 1945. For my own country, our membership to the United Nations secured for us the hope of peace, security and development even as we continue to struggle with a long extant claim to our territory. It provides the framework within which we can peacefully settle our differences.”

Multilateralism: “We are still soldiers in the battle for Freedom, Equality and Justice. But in fighting that battle we no longer need the crude instruments of war. We have instead as our weapon the power of the rule of law, cooperation and friendship between peoples and nations, and an abiding faith in multilateralism.”

Benin
H.E. Mr. Bony Yayi, President
23 September 2008
Unofficial translation by WILPF staff.

Peace and conflict: “I would like to launch an urgent appeal to all armed parties, to armed conflict which continue to rage throughout various hot spots around the world—in the Middle East, Asia, Africa or Latin America—to prompt them to choose the path of peace, and dialogue as well as respect for democratic values.”

Bhutan
H.E. Mr. Lyonchoen Jigmi Yoezer Thinley, Prime Minister
26 September 2008

Terrorism: “And then there is terrorism and extremism of the most barbaric cowardly kind – using the weak and the deranged to kill and maim the innocent.”

Bolivia
H.E. Mr. Evo Morales Ayma, President
23 September 2008

Waiting translation.

Bosnia and Herzegovina
H.E. Mr. Haris Silajdžic, Chairman of the Presidency of Bosnia and Herzegovina
23 September 2008

Arms embargo: “Some of the international community insisted on maintaining the arms embargo imposed by the UN Security Council in 1991, thus adding to the obviously overwhelming military advantage of Milosevic’s regime that was bent on destroying Bosnia and its people. They justified this course by claiming that the lifting of the embargo would add oil to the fire. The result, inevitably, was quelling that fire with the blood of the innocent.”

Botswana
H.E. Mr. Phandu T.C. Skelemani, Minister of Foreign Affairs and International Cooperation
29 September 2008

Multilateralism: “Mr. President, as the international community, we have the collective responsibility to equip and optimally use our multilateral body, the United Nations, to search for fair and just solutions to global problems, in order to contribute to the betterment of all humanity.

“The United Nations is today more than ever before required to respond effectively and swiftly, to the complex challenges of the 21st century. Conflicts, poverty, disease, natural and man-made disasters, climate change, energy, terrorism, are among a myriad of pressing problems that confront humanity and require an urgent global response. It is, thus, imperative that we continue to make concerted efforts to address these challenges in pursuit of a better tomorrow. The magnitude of these challenges clearly requires multilateral strategies and solutions.”

Militarism: “Mr. President, as we meet here, let us always remind ourselves of the solemn commitments which we the people of the world have undertaken to end war and human suffering. Botswana calls upon all States especially the major powers to set an example by refraining from the use of weapons in resolving conflicts. Military confrontation is unfortunately always a demonstration of either the failure of the will to use diplomacy, or the urge to show off military superiority and the inability to employ resources and technological advances for the benefit of improving human lives.”

Peace: “Mr. President, the search for global peace and security remains a matter of vital interest to my delegation. While we may have made significant strides in the promotion of peace through conflict prevention and resolution, post conflict recovery, peace building, conflicts continue to flare up, thus, making the restoration of peace, a remote possibility to some in the world.”

Brazil
H.E. Mr. Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva, President
23 September 2008

Multilateralism: “...the multilateral system must be overhauled to meet the challenges of the 21st century.”

Brunei Darussalam
His Royal Highness Prince Haji Al-Muhtadee Billah, Crown Prince
25 September 2008

No relevant references.

Bulgaria
H.E. Mr. Sergei Stanishev, Prime Minister
26 September 2008

Multilateralism: “Effective multilateralism requires an intensive partnership between UN and regional organizations.”

Multilateralism, peace, and security: “Different forms of regional, subregional and transborder cooperation may serve as building blocks of a comprehensive collective security system. Peace and stability are well-rooted when local communities and immediate neighbors live in harmony. This philosophy guided the recent Bulgarian chairmanship of the South East European Cooperation Process. Regional cooperation in South East Europe has gained momentum recently. South East Europe is on its way to turn from an area recovering from war to a thriving and dynamic region. In the last twelve months a whole new architecture of interaction came into being, connecting the countries of the region to the rest of Europe and the international community.”

Disarmament, non-proliferation, WMD, small arms and light weapons: “Disarmament, arms control and non-proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, as well as strengthening of the international treaty system should be a priority to all states, as the list of risks and challenges to our common security is, regrettably, a very long one. In this regard, the need for a full and universal implementation of the Non-proliferation Treaty regime is, and must remain, of utmost importance. The same is true for the full implementation of the UN Program of Action against the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons.”

ATT: “We are strongly committed to working for the adoption of a legally binding international Arms Trade Treaty.”

Terrorism: “When countering terrorism it is essential to conduct that struggle within the requirements of international law, to overcome prejudices, stereotype perceptions in a world of great diversity. Bulgaria's long history of tolerance has been based on the common understanding that cultural diversity is a great asset in our society. It is in this spirit Bulgaria actively participates in the UN Alliance of Civilizations and supports other like-minded initiatives.”

Peace: “Our task today is not only to keep the peace - we must also make certain that peace is irreversible and sustainable. The Peacebuilding Commission, an early achievement of the reform process, has now become functional and has achieved some practical results in Burundi and Sierra Leone.”

Peace and security: “Stable peace and security can only be achieved through development. Therefore there is an urgent need to accelerate the implementation of the internationally agreed development goals, including the Millennium Development Goals.”

Burkina Faso
H.E. Mr. Blaise Compaoré, President
24 September 2008

Waiting translation.

Burundi
H.E. Mr/ Ms Gabriel Ntisezerana, Second Vice-President
26 September 2008

Waiting translation.

Cambodia
H.E. Mr Ouch Borith, Secretary of State, Ministry of Foreign Affairs and International Cooperation
29 September 2008

Small arms and light weapons: “Furthermore, our world is still marred by the spread of small arms and light weapons which continue to have implications on our comprehensive security and livelihoods, We need to address this issue with seriousness and prompt actions. As a country which was ravaged by war and conflict for more than two decades, Cambodia experienced the suffering of the use of small arms and light weapons and other weapons of war. In this regard, we attach great importance to the agreed international instruments, especially the implementation of the 2001 United Nations Programme of Action on Small Arms and Light Weapons. Over the years, Cambodia has taken practical measures to strictly control the use and circulation of arms and ammunitions, as well as to eliminate the illegal procurement and sales of arms.”

Landmines: “On the landmines and UXO issues, we are of the view that landmines are not only a security problem but also a humanitarian one, as the innocent victims become permanently traumatized and physically handicapped, while their families suffer untold misery of spiritual and material deprivation.

“Landmines and UXOs issues have been integrated in our national agenda, such as in the ‘Cambodia Millennium Development Goals’ (CMDGs), the National Strategic Development Plan (NSDP), and the ‘Rectangular Strategy’ of the Royal Government of Government in order to cope with this challenging issue, Cambodia highly appreciates the valuable contributions of both development partners and donors in terms of financial and material support over the years.

“With our de-mining experiences and as part of our contribution to international peace, security and development, Cambodia has dispatched its third group of 135 De-miners of the Royal Cambodian Armed Forces to Sudan, for mine clearance action under the umbrella of the UN Peacekeeping Operations.”

Terrorism: “Terrorism is a stumbling block to the advancement and properity of our society and the world at large. We need to recommit ourselves and strengthen our practical measures, including putting gin place a good strategy to combat terrorism at national, regional, and international levels. We must enhance at all levels the relevant instruments on counter-terrorism, in particular the United Nations Counter-Terrorism Strategy which was adopted by the United Nations General Assembly in December 2006.

“For Cambodia, the Royal Government of Cambodia has devoted its time, energy, efforts and resources to join the international community to combat terrorism in accordance with the United Nations conventions and protocols and agreement on security cooperation with ASEAN Member States, including its partners in the region. To live up to our strong commitment, the Law on Counter Terrorism was promulgated by His Majesty the King of Cambodia in July 2007, and our national mechanism in this area has been constantly strengthened.”

Cameroon
H.E. Mr. Paul Biya, President
25 September 2008

Security: “If appropriate responses are not rapidly found, there will be reason to fear dramatic repercussions on international trade, economic growth, social progress, political stability and hence global security.”

Multilateralism: “It is therefore an urgent necessity to act rapidly and collectively. We believe an appropriate response to this situation lies in ensuring coordination at the highest level.”

Peace and security: “As regards peace and security, perhaps more than in any other area, Africa needs the active solidarity of the international community.... Here, the peace agreements signed after lengthy negotiations are yet to fully enter into force. There, force is used to jeopardize democratic achievements.”

Terrorism and multilateralism: “Our continent is, unfortunately, not also spared by the threat of terrorism which has henceforth taken a global dimension. I am convinced that only global and resolute action will help address this issue. Cameroon will contribute its quota as necessary.”

Canada
H.E. Mr. Leonard Edwards, Deputy Foreign Minister
29 September 2008

Peace, security, and terrorism: “For Canada, the United Nations remains indispensable for addressing the many global challenges that confront us today, whether it be the search for peace and security, or the promotion of human rights, democracy and international development, or combatting terrorism, or the protection of the environment.”

Multilateralism: “These challenges require collective and cooperative strategies. They cannot be tackled by any one country acting alone. That is why we much redouble our efforts to make the United Nations more effective and efficient so that it can deliver real results.”

Terrorism: “We stand ready to work within the UN to address new challenges such as climate change and combatting terrorism.”

Cape Verde
H.E. Mr. Pedro Verona Rodrigues Pires, President
24 September 2008

Unofficial translation by WILPF staff.

Multilateralism: “The world grows in complexity with its multiple challenges and numerous risks and uncertainties. This state of affairs calls for increased multilateralism, more collective responsibility and greater cooperation. In short, it demands and expects more and better from the United Nations.”

Security and terrorism: “There is risk to our economic, human, political and military security; in other words, our general and collective security. On the one and organized transnational crime and terrorism threaten the international order and the rule of law. On the other hand, the effects of global warming and climate change, as well as the risks imposed by their worsening, are real effects that confront world leaders and institutions.”

Peace: “World peace continues to be out of reach. Sites with armed conflict still exist. Indeed they resurge repeatedly or persist with low intensity. In the meantime, new sources of tension arise in many places. However, I believe that we agree that war is not the best course to overcome these challenges.”

Security and multilateralism: “We also have failed to build security and trust among all and for all, large and small, rich and poor. Without security, without social stability, without political and institutional cohesiveness and above all, without mutual trust among the international political actors, it is difficult to further the premises that may contribute ensuring a solution for major global problems...”

Central African Republic
H.E. Army General François Bozizé, President
24 September 2008

Unofficial translation by WILPF staff.

Multilateralism: “In this era of interdependence among states, the prime solution would appear to be the absolute need for a collective decision making forum and an instrument for rapid action. This is the vision indeed which the founders of our Organization had in 1945 but it must be recognized today that there are limitations to the various institutions which make up the United nations and to agree on the need for reform in order to turn it into an instrument which is much more effective to implement the MDGs and to seek for peace, the kind of peace which fits the current situation.

“My country is convinced of the importance of genuine democratization of the United Nations System, in this connection, particular attention should paid to the functioning of the Security Council, the Economic and Social Council, as well as the Bretton Woods institutions, and the General Assembly. If together we take the courageous decision to implement this ambitious project, we would win the wager of providing the world with an ideal structure which is able to tackle all international questions; this is an opportunity to build a world that is more secure, more equitable, more balanced and freer for all peoples.”

Security: “In Central Africa, because of the destructing action of many irregular military rebel groups, often manipulated from outside, food and security particularly in the rural areas are often provoked by lack of security itself. This has led the government to organize a national seminar on reform of the security sector in April 2008 which is an important step towards peace.”

Terrorism: “Hunger, the environment, corruption and ethnic conflicts are indeed a burden for the most needy populations on earth. Other threats such as terrorism, poverty and bad governance also help to make the world even more vulnerable and mean that we must find some replies and to find some ways and means to finding a durable solution to them.”

Chad
H. E. Mr. Moussa Faki Mahamat, Minister for Foreign Relations
29 September 2008

Awaiting translation.

Chile
H.E. Dr. Michelle Bachelet, President
24 September 2008

Terrorism: “We have witnessed – sometimes tragically – the emergence or reappearance of various problems of global significance, such as climate change, terrorism and the food crisis.”

Multilateralism: “I appeal for an urgent and genunie commitment to multilateralism. This is why we must undertake to continue supporting and reforming international institutions and particularly the United Nations, to make the Organization more representative and more democratic and a better response to the hopes of our peoples.”

Multilateralism and peace: “We have set an example of how multilateral commitment should be understood. It is a commitment forged in the diversity of political projects but based on shared values such as democracy, peace and defence of human rights.”

Multilateralism and peace: “[The La Moneda Summit] tells us that the values of democracy, dialogue, human rights and peace are becoming stronger than ever in Latin America.... It tells us that these values, in addition to being widely shared by the citizens, are becoming entrenched in multilateralism, in institutions and international law. All the more reason, then, that we should feel obligated to cooperate in the building of a better world.”

China
H.E. Mr. Wen Jiabao, Premier of the State Council
24 September 2008

Peace: “China will remain committed to the path of peaceful development, unswervingly pursue reform and opening-up, and continue to adhere to an independent foreign policy of peace.”

Peace: “The world needs peace, for only with peace can there be development. China earnestly hopes to have a peaceful international environment in order to achieve its development goals. The Chinese government is committed to an independent foreign policy of peace and stands ready to work with other countries to advance the noble cause of peace and progress of mankind [sic].”

Peace: “China will, through its own development, contribute to peace and development in the world.”

Peace: “China’s development is peaceful in nature. It will not harm anyone or pose a threat to anyone. China does not seek hegemony now, nor will it do so in the future. China keeps and develops an appropriate level of military capability solely for the purpose of safeguarding China’s sovereignty and territorial integrity.”

Terrorism and multilateralism: “Given the global nature of issues threatening the survival and development of mankind [sic] such as ... the spread of terrorism ... no country can expect to stay away from the difficulties or handle the problems all by itself.”

Colombia
H.E. Mr Álvaro Uribe Vélez, President of the Republic of Colombia
24 September 2008

Security: “Colombia continues to fight so that each and every citizen can be confident about living, working, enterprising, studying and being happy in their Homeland. Confidence sustained by democratic security, security for socially responsible investment and the construction of social cohesion.”

Security: “Social cohension validates security. Meeting the Millennium Goals, set for 2015, is a real urgency for us as an essential part of building social cohension.”

Security: “In a democracy of opinion such as ours, the sustainability of democratic security depends on its credibility, which in turn is based on effectiveness and transparency.”

Security: “There are intangible results of democratic security: citizens have greater faith in the State, and they seek their protection, overcoming the past indifference of some and the inclination of many to address their risks by their own means; we have recovered the monopoly over the weapons of the State and Official Justice; citizens have lost their fear to denounce, give testimony and cooperate with the Armed Forces and with Justice; victims have also left behind their fear, today they are coming forward to claim their rights.”

Terrorism: “From [observance of Human Rights] ... comes our respect for liberties in the midst of the fights against terrorism.”

Terrorism: “Illicit Drugs are a great enemy of the environment and they fuel terrorism.”

Colombia also talked about terrorism in its country.

Comoros
H.E. Mr. Ahmed Abdallah Sambi, President
25 September 2008

Waiting translation.

Congo, Republic of the
H.E. Mr. Basile Ikouebe, Minister of Foreign Affairs and Francophonie
29 September 2008

Multilateralism: “We reaffirm here that the United Nations offers to us the ideal framework to work together in search of solutions that bring in durable impact. This is the sense underlying our constant attachment to multilateralism.”

Multilateralism: “It is largely due to these regional efforts and to the support of other bilateral and multilateral partners that the Central African Republic, to cite as an example our neighboring country, is working towards bring[ing] back peace and security through the virtues of dialogue between the Government and the rebel movements.”

Terroism, small arms and light weapons: “In its desire to participate in the collective effort in the area of peace and security, my country reaffirms here, its full commitment to the fight against terrorism, the proliferation of small arms and light weapons, drug and human trafficking.”

Non-proliferation: “Congo is fully committed to strictly observe the Treaty on the Non-proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) in its three facets.”

Multilateralism: “Our attachment to multilateralism makes us believe that there is a pressing need to pursue the work of the United Nations reform, and particularly, that of the Security Council.”

Costa Rica
H.E. Mr. Óscar Arias Sánchez, President
24 September 2008

Military Spending: “World military spending has reached $3.3 billion per day, but international aid continues to reach the poorest countries at a snail’s pase, while failing to reach middle-income countries altogether.”

Military Spending: “Governments can indirectly hurt their peoples in many ways, one of which is excessive military spending. Particularly in developing nations, every long-range missile, every helicopter gunship, every tank, is a symbol of postponed attention to the needs of our people.

“On a planet where one-sixth of the population lives on less than a dollar a day, spending $1.2 trillion on arms and soldiers is an offense and a symbol of irrationality, because the security of a satisfied world is more certain that the security of an armed world. Latin America does not escape this phenomenon. Last year, Latin American military spending reached $39 billion, in a region that has never been more peaceful or democratic.

“I know no greater perversion of values, and no greater misplacement of priorities. With a small percentage of world military spending, we could give potable water to all of humanity, equip all homes with electricity, achieve universal literacy, and eradicate all preventable diseases. I’m not talking about a utopia of a world without arms. Unfortunately, that is an idea whose time has not yet come. I am talking about tiny percentages of an expenditure that could be reduced without damaging countries’ ability to defend themselves—particularly developing countries.

“That’s why my government has presented the Costa Rica Consensus, an initiative that would create mechanisms to forgive debts and use international financial resources to support developing nations that spend more on environmental protections, education, health care and housing for people, and less on arms and soldiers. I am convinced this will bring us greater development, greater security and greater peace than all the money we now set aside for our armies. I humbly ask you today to support this initiative.”

Arms Trade Treaty: “I also ask for your support for the Arms Trade Treaty that Costa Rica is pushing forward in the heart of this organization, to prohibit the transfer of arms to States, groups or individuals if sufficient reason exists to believe that those arms will be used to violate human rights or International Law. The destructive power of the 640 million small arms and light weapons that exist in the world, most in the hands of civilians, deserves the same or even more attention than military spending.”

Militarism: “Sixty years ago, an illustrious Costa Rican figure, Jose Figueres, abolished my country’s army. What had been the General Fortress of of the Costa Rican armed forces is today a National Museum. Our children have never seen a column of soldiers on the march; they know only the march of columns of ants. No Costa Rican children know the difference between this or that missile, between this or or that combat plane, but they can distinguish among the trees of the forest and the animals of the sea; they know the importance of the water cycle, of wind energy, of rivers and of the sun. Ours is a nation of peace among humans, but we also aspire to be a nation of peace with all forms of life.”

Peace: “We must guarantee peace and justice for the past, peace and development for the present, peace and nature for the future.”

Peace: “Forgiveness is based on memory, not in concealment; and peace will be possible only through memory.”

Peace: “I assure you that if we confront the spirit of our past, our present and our future; if we build peace on justice, development and nature; if we reject oblivion, armaments and environmental destruction; we will reach that promised land some day, and our children, and our children’s children, will never again be beggars in the kingdom of our dreams.”

Côte D’Ivoire
H. E. Mr. Youssouf Bakayoko, Minister for Foreign Affairs of Côte d’Ivoire
29 September 2008

Awaiting translation.

Croatia
H.E. Dr. Ivo Sanader, Prime Minister
26 September 2008

Multilateralism: “It reminds us of the constant need for an effective multilateral effort to address global challenges, and to maintain and build peace in a range of conflict zones and post-conflict societies, searching for solutions within the rule based international order, through the promotion of freedom, democracy, development and the respect for human rights.”

Multilateralism: “This is a commitment that Croatia and its people accepted even before our independence. A commitment to strengthen international cooperation through effective multilateral organizations for advancing peace and security, facilitating development combating poverty, protecting our environment, eradicating diseases and promoting public health.”

Multilateralism: “As a member of the Security Council, Croatia will continue to work as a responsible and dedicated partner in the common effort to maintain and build peace through the promotion of human rights and democracy, the fight for the eradication of poverty and injustice, and the advancement of effective multilateralism. In this Croatia will be guided by a sense of responsibility, solidarity and good faith. We hold that effective multilateral action, including with regional organizations, is our best guarantee in safeguarding these values.”

Multilateralism: “We are also aware of the fact that the failure to address these issues in a multilateral context of cooperation could lead us into old paradigms of confrontation.”

Terrorism: “We live in a world that has significantly redefined the traditional notion of threats to international peace and security. In an increasingly interconnected world, global threats are taking many forms. Terrorism, poverty, disease, climate change, environmental degradation and rising food prices command that we work together, as only a common vision and collective action, implemented in the spirit of solidarity and responsibility, can counter there challenges.

“Terrorism attempts to undermine the core values of the modern world, and poses a serious challenge to our security, to the basic principles of democratic societies and to the rights and freedoms of our citizens. Terrorist acts are criminal in nature and cannot be justified under and circumstances. Croatia appreciates and fully supports all efforts in the global struggle against terrorism, within the UN system and beyond.

“Since the beginning of this year, Croatia has been chairing the Security Council Counter Terrorism Committee, which was established in the immediate aftermath of the devastating terrorist attacks against the United State and the whole democratic world on September 11, 2001. We have assumed this responsibility with utmost seriousness and are working towards moving the Committee forward by focusing on concrete results and achieving realistic objectives.

“I would also like to reiterate the importance Croatia attaches to the Global Counter-Terrorism Strategy as one of the primary international documents in the global fight against terrorism. Croatia is also active on the regional level, presiding over CODEXTER within the Council of Europe.”

Cuba
H.E. Mr. José Ramón Machado Ventura, First Vice-President of the Council of State and Ministers
24 September 2008

Peace: “The promotion of peace, solidarity, social justice and sustainable development is the only way to ensure the future. The prevailing world order, unjust and unsustainable, must be replaced by a new system that is truly democratic and equitable, based on respect for international Law and on the principles of solidarity and justice, putting an end to the inequalities and exclusion to which the great majorities of the population of our planet have been condemned.”

Militarism, peace, and security: “The wars of conquest, the aggression and illegal occupation of countries, military intervention and the bombing of innocent civilians, the unbridled arms race, the pillage and usurping of the Third World's natural resources and the imperial offensive to crush the resistance of the peoples who are defending their rights, constitute the greatest and most serious threats to peace and international security.”

Militarism and terrorism: “Concepts such as limitation of sovereignty, preemptive war or regime change, are an expression of the desire to mutilate the independence of our countries. The so-called war on terrorism or the false promotion of their freedoms, are an excuse for aggression and military occupation, for torture, arbitrary arrests and the denial of the right of self-determination of peoples, for unfair blockades and unilaterally imposed sanctions, for the imposition of political, economic and social models that facilitate imperial domination, in open disdain for history, cultures and the sovereign will of the peoples.”

Military spending: “While a trillion of dollars is spent on weapons in the world, more than 850 million human beings are starving; 1.1 billion people don't have access to drinking water, 2.6 billion lack sewage services and more than 800 million are illiterate. More than 640 million children tack adequate housing, 115 million do not attend primary school and 10 million die before the age of five, in most cases as the result of diseases that can be cured.”

Military spending, war, multilateralism: “Cuba once again calls on the governments of the developed countries, on behalf of the Movement of Non-Aligned countries, to honor their commitments and, in particular, Cuba urges them to ...

- Put an end to the wars of occupation and to the plunder of the resources of the Third World countries and to free up at least a part of their millions in military spending to direct those resources towards international assistance for the benefit of sustainable development.
- And something that is today more urgent than ever, the establishment of a democratic and equitable international order, and a fair and transparent trading system where all States will participate, in sovereignty, in the decisions that affect them.”

Multilateralism: “We condemn the imposition of unilateral coercive measures in violation of International Law, and attempts to implant a single model for a political, economic and social system. We object to the negative practices of certifying countries according to the patterns and interests of the powerful. We strongly oppose political manipulation and the application of double standards in the matter of human rights, and we reject the selective imposition of politically motivated resolutions against the member countries of the [Non-Aligned] Movement.”

Terrorism: “What respect is due to a government that attacks the sovereignty of other Stales using the excuse of the fight against terrorism, while at the same time guaranteeing impunity to anti-Cuban terrorists?”

Cyprus
H.E. Mr. Dimitris Christofias, President
24 September 2008

Multilateralism: “Maintaining the effectiveness of multilateral diplomacy and strengthening the relevance of the United Nations is one of the cornerstones of the foreign policy of Cyprus since its Independence in 1960.”

Multilateralism: “Small states have higher stakes in multilateral diplomacy and in a fair and functional system of collective security based on the principles of sovereign equality and respect of territorial integrity.”

Multilateralism: “Our world faces many problems which are increasingly becoming more complex. It is our conviction that these problems can be solved and new threats can be prevented only through effective multilateral collective action.”

Peace and terrorism: “Peace must prevail. A true peace based on respect of international law and not the right of might. A response to the problem of international terrorism will only be effective if our world becomes less unjust. Without tackling hunger and poverty, without solving regional disputes on the basis of international legitimacy and without a more fair distribution of global wealth, peace can not grow firm roots.”

Czech Republic
H.E. Mr. Karel Schwarzenberg, Minister of Foreign Affairs
27 September 2008

Terrorism: “We need to step up efforts in combating international terrorism. The stakes remain high. With our deep condolences to the people of India and Pakistan, we strongly condemn the recent terrorist attacks in New Delhi and Islamabad. We must not be shaken but stand up to this scourge united, stronger and more determined. I was deeply moved by the condolences expressed by my Pakistani counterpart. It is touching to hear with from someone whose country has suffered immensely from terrorism.”

WMD, non-proliferation, terrorism, CTBT: “We need to undertake some bold steps in the area of weapons of mass destruction and non-proliferation. We should reduce the risk that those weapons are misused or fall into the hand of terrorists. The immediate task is to ensure a successful outcome of the Non-Proliferation Treaty review process and the entry into force of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty.”

Iran and North Korea’s nuclear programmes: “In this context, I would like to express our concern over the Iranian and North Korean nuclear programs. We fully recognize the indispensable right of every country to exploit nuclear power for civilian purposes, but we should act when it could be diverted toward military purposes in breach of international commitments.”

Cluster munitions: “My country was among those, who vigorously called for a new universal norm to prevent risks stemming from the use of cluster munitions. The Czech Republic will be among the first to sign the new Convention on Cluster Munitions this December. I am convinced that the more countries join the Convention, the more profound and positive effect on the lives of countless individuals and communities it will have.”

Democratic People's Republic of Korea
H.E. Mr. Pak Kil Yon, Vice-Minister for Foreign Affairs
27 September 2008

Terrorism: “Nearly ten years have passed since the UNGA has adopted the Millennium Declaration... Nevertheless, a vicious circle of aggression and intervention, conflict and terrorism still persists within the international relations, and consequently global peace and security continue to face new serious challenges.”

Militarism: “The military alliances ever in place in the Cold War era are being further intensified and arms races of new forms are taking place in Asia-Pacific, Europe and other different regions.”

Terrorism and non-proliferation: “Attempts to justify violations of sovereignty of developing countries under the pretext of ‘war on terror’, ‘human rights’ and ‘non-proliferation’ get more undisguised.”

Multilateralism: “The reality of today requires all member states to pool their efforts together for the building of a just, peaceful and prosperous world as a matter of priority as they have pledged through the UN Millennium Declaration.”

Peace: “The building of a new world, free and peaceful, without domination and subjugation, aggression and war is a common aspiration of the world peoples, and represents itself as the shared responsibilites of the humankind at present.”

Multilateralism, peace, and security: “It is also imperative to hold in check the attempts of some individual countries to address critical international issues related to world peace and security solely for their own interests.”

Militarism: “...a series of reckless military maneuvers destabilizing the regional situation such as strengthening of strategic military alliances, massive shipment of state-of-the-art war equipment and annual large-scale military exercises are being conducted in and around the Korean peninsula. The “Ulji Freedom Guardian” joint military exercise staged by the United States and South Korea last August under the pretext of what they called ‘preparation for emergency on the Korean Peninsula’ was nothing more than a war drills mounting a preemptive nuclear strike on the DPRK, to all intents and purposes.”

North Korea’s nuclear programme: “Denuclearization of the Korean peninsula is the lifetime instruction of President KIM IL SUNG, the Great Leader of our people, and the Government of the DPRK remains consistent in its position to resolve the nuclear issue peacefully through dialogue and negotiations.

“Adoption of North-South joint declaration on the denuclearization of the Korean peninsula in 1992 and DPRK-U.S. Agreed Framework in 1994 are a demonstration of the firm political will of our Government to denuclearize the Korean peninsula. Thanks to our sincere endeavor, several rounds of six-party talks were held to date, enabling the adoption of the joint statement on September 19, 2005, followed by the agreements on and implementation of phased actions aimed at resolving the nuclear issue of the Korean peninsula. The DPRK honored its commitments to the agreements of the six party talks in good faith.

“Nuclear facilities were being disabled at the final stage, a nuclear declaration submitted and even those measures envisaged for the destruction phase implemented in advance. This notwithstanding, the U.S. has laid an artificial obstacle to implementing the October 3 agreement by refusing to implement her obligations and put forward such an unjust demand as verification of the “international standard” never agreed on among the six parties or between the DPRK and the U.S.

“The ‘international standard’ asserted by the U.S. is nothing but ‘special inspection’ which the IAEA called for in the 1990s to infringe upon the sovereignty of the DPRK and caused it to pull out of the NPT in the end.

“The United States has now put on hold the effectuation of the measure for delisting the DPRK as a ‘state sponsor of terrorism’ under the pretext of verification even after officially declaring that the DPRK is not a ‘state sponsor of terrorism’. This is little short of admitting that the list is not related to terrorism in actuality.

“As far as the verification is concerned, it is a commitment to be fulfilled by the six parties at the final phase of denuclearization of the whole Korean Peninsula in accordance with the September 19 joint statement. The U.S. insistence on the unilateral inspection of the DPRK is a brigandish demand for unilaterally disarming the DPRK, the other warring party, by discarding its commitment to the denuclearization of the whole Korean Peninsula, the core of which is to remove the U.S. nuclear threat according to the September 19 joint statement.

“Now that the U.S. has broken the agreement, the DPRK is inevitably taking relevant countermeasures on the basis of the principle of ‘action for action’. If the six parties are not true to their words in implementing respective obligations in the light of a great lack of trust with each other, no progress will be made at all. This is a lesson drawn from the process of the previous six party talks. The DPRK will continue to make every sincere effort towards the denuclearization of the whole Korean peninsula, but will not be indifferent to an attempt to offend our dignity and self-respect, and violate its sovereignty.”

Democratic Republic of Congo
H.E. Mr. Ileka Atoki, Chairperson of the Delegation
29 September 2008

Waiting translation.

Denmark
H.E. Ambassador Carsten Staur, Chairperson of the Delegation
29 September 2008

Multilateralism: “Global challenges call for global responses. The best way to deal with global issues is through an effective and strong multilateral system – through a strong United Nations system.”

Terrorism: “During the past weeks we have witnessed new cruel and meaningless acts of terrorism. The evil terrorist attack in Islamabad on the Marriot Hotel this September 20th resulted in the loss of many innocent lives; most of the lives were Pakistanis, and also other nationalities, one of them Danish. This and other attacks came only a few weeks after all UN member states had reaffirmed their commitment to the UN counter terrorism strategy. We must respond to these despicable acts of fanatics with great determination to strengthen international cooperation in this area. All UN bodies must join up in the fight against terrorism. Hopefully, this General Assembly will, finally, agree to a comprehensive convention on international terrorism. In addition, we must focus on due process and sanctions, as it becomes increasingly clear that the lack of adequate due process hampers the efficiency of the sanction systems.”

Multilateralism, terrorism, non-proliferation: “In the are of development, in the area of peace and security, in the area of human right – and in the many areas that transcend borders. But this can only be addressed through multilateral cooperation, like counter-terrorism, non-proliferation, pandemics – and climate change. Multilateralism is our only response to the challenges, risks and opportunities of an interdependent and globalized world.”

Dijibouti
Did not speak at the general debate.

Dominica
H.E. Mr Roosevelt Skerrit, Prime Minister
26 September 2008

No relevant references.

Dominican Republic
H.E. Mr. Leonel Fernandez Reyna, President
24 September 2008

Waiting translation.

Ecuador
H.E. Ms. Maria Fernanda Espinosa, Ambassador and Permanent Representative of Ecuador to the United Nations
29 September 2008

Terrorism, disarmament: “We share with him the need to prioritize the fight for the eradication of poverty and to pay special attention to relevant issues such as climate change, energy crisis, terrorism, human rights, disarmament and nuclear control, the rights of women and children, and the preservation of biodiversity and of culture diversity.”

Multilateralism: “My country is convinced that the strengthening of the multilateral system is an imperative in the current world. We have no other option to guarantee peace and security in the world, than to renew our political decision of making serious efforts to advance in the debate on the reform of the United Nations system and, particularly, of the Security Council.”

Mulitlateralism: “We need to urgently build a multilateral system that respond promptly and effective to current challenges and that truly exercises fundamental principles international law, such as the sovereign equality of the States.”

Terrorism: “My country supports the actions the United Nations is putting in place to address the serious problems of security we face, such as the fight against terrorism, the world problem of drugs, the fight against transnational organized crime. In this sense, we are glad to see the positive results reached during the first analysis of the advance in the implementation of the Global Strategy against Terrorism, and which decided to institutionalize the Counter Terrorism Working Group.”

Terrorism: “Ecuador also supports negotiations aimed at the eventual adoption of a legally binding Convention on terrorism. However, we believe that, in view of the transcendence and the implications of the issue, this Convention should gather in an express and unequivocal way the obligations of all States of limiting the fight against terrorism in the framework of international law, human rights, international humanitarian law and the principles and norms established in the United Nations Charter.
“The fight against terrorism cannot be an excuse for some States to feel released from their obligation of respecting fundamental norms of international law, such as the sovereignty and the territorial integrity of other States, and the non-intervention in their internal affairs. The violation of the human rights of alleged terrorists, who have been tortured, have been incarcerated in clandestine military prisons and have been deprived of these elemental right to defend themselves also constitute a very serious precedent. These practices must be condemned by the international community.”

Disarmament, non-proliferation, WMD: “Ecuador, whose foreign policy reflects its firm commitment with disarmament and non-proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, has not only adhered to international instruments adopted in this issue but it also supports and executes all actions issued from these instruments to achieve their effective implementation. Regrettably, we are concerned by the fact that there are countries that have no adhered to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons while others, which have adhered to it, are not complying with their obligations, especially in regards to disarmament and destruction of their arsenals.”

Small arms and light weapons: “Other issues of great concern for my country are the fight against transnational organized crime and its ramifications: production and illicit traffic of narcotics, corruption, manufacturing and illicit traffic in small arms and light weapons, trafficking in persons. We believe that the United Nations has taken determined steps in these issues by adopting international conventions that allow cooperation between our countries to fight these scourges. We reiterate our commitment to continue cooperating and implementing national policies required to address these issues, but we believe that having adequate and equitable international cooperation is essential.”

Multilateralism: “Ecuador is convinced that the multilateral system, as opposed to the unipolar system, is the only way the world has to overcome the problems it faces, and above all to guarantee the wellbeing of the peoples and international peace and security.”

Egypt
H.E. M. Ahmed Aboul Gheit, Minister for Foreign Affairs
27 September 2008

Terrorism: “The 63rd Session of the General Assembly takes place against the back drop of various international and regional developments that are closely linked to the peace and security of all humanity ... [including] combating terrorism.”

Multilateralism: “Egypt believes that all those challenges and others constitute high priorities for us on the international agenda. Their diagnosis and treatment require a concerted international effort. We must all be fully aware that the path of our common salvation from these problems lies in our collective diagnosis and our united stand in confronting them. We are in need of a new approach, a new vision and a new method in dealing with global problems. Unfortunately, the existing frameworks have proven unable to deal successfully with the challenges under consideration.”

Disarmament, non-proliferation, WMD Zone in the Middle East, nuclear weapons, peace, and security: “The international approach to dealing with disarmament, arms control and nonproliferation is marred with defects, duality and regression that is disconcerting us. Egypt has always shown great interest in these matters which is best embodied in Egypt's invitation to rid the Middle East of all weapons of mass destruction. Our interest in this matter is based on our unwavering belief that security and military balance, especially in conflict areas, contributes to laying the solid foundations of peace between countries and peoples.

“However, achieving peace and security in any region requires, among other things, the establishment of just and parallel international and regional mechanisms in the areas of disarmament, arms control and non-proliferation. It is notable that, unfortunately, prominent members of the international community are unduly permissive with the issue of Israel's nuclear capabilities and the extent to which it constantly threatens the security of the Middle East. This occurs simultaneously with the attempts of some to enhance the obligations encompassed in international mechanisms without paying attention to the issue of achieving universality for the NPT and subjecting all nuclear facilities in the Middle East to the comprehensive safeguards system of the IAEA. Egypt will, nonetheless, persist in its endeavors, through existing mechanisms and forums, and in coordination with friendly States that understand the reality and danger of the situation, in order to change it, and to warn of the threats posed by failing to achieve universality for the NPT in the Middle East.”

Security: “Regional security in our region should be construed widely, and the security of the Arab Gulf - which is currently in the spotlight - is one of Egypt’s principal concerns, not only for Egypt's close relations with the GCC countries; but also for what Egypt represents in terms of strategic depth for its Arab brothers. Therefore, we are following closely all developments in the region, in particular the discourse about "new arrangements". We would like to affirm that Egypt is working in coordination with Members of the GCC with a view to protecting Arab national security and to guarantee that any such arrangements - if they come into existence - represent a true guarantee to the security of all parties.”

El Salvador
H.E. Mr Elías Antonio Saca González, President
24 September 2008

Unofficial translation by WILPF staff.

Peace and security: “We have invested in development we have tried to meet the MDGs and those successes will be swept aside by these excessive prices of oil. We cannot continue to wait; we must take immediate political decision to ensure development and to prevent a much deeper crisis in order to preserve peace, security and stability of the world.”

Multilateralism: “We must think about the role that the United Nations should play in the role of sustainable development. What the member states need is a modern organization, a strong organization with the institutions that are able to effectively face the challenges of the international situation. With this in mind, El Salvador would like to reiterate its support to the process of reforms within the Organization so that we are able to fulfill the principle of the Organization as it was created in 1945 particularly today when we are faced with threats in the world, threats against peace, security, human rights and international cooperation which are fundamental pillars of development. As part of this effort, the reform of the Security Council is of particular relevance. In that respect we would like to stress, that changes should be made to make the institution more democratic, representative and transparent in order to adapt to the current international situations.”

Peace and security: “We would like to reiterate our profound thanks to the system of the United Nations having accompanied us in the process of consolidation in the peace agreement in El Salvador. Today El Salvador is a model; we are living witnesses of the primordial role of the United Nations in guaranteeing peace and stability. Aware as we are of our experience, El Salvador participated actively as vice president in the Peacebuilding Commission, likewise we have become a troop contributing country to the Peace Keeping System, this is something that we do in honor; in order to defend world peace and security in time of need.”

Equatorial Guinea
H.E. Mr. Teodoro Obiang Nguema Mbasogo, President
25 September 2008

Waiting translation.

Eritrea
H.E. Mr. Osman Saleh, Minister of Foreign Affairs
29 September 2008

Multilateralism: “The perplexing feature of this overarching and negative development is the emergence of ‘management by crisis’ as a new tool of policy promotion. These days, candid efforts are not exerted to prevent and manage conflicts. On the contrary, crises are
deliberately spawned and allowed to fester so that their ‘management’ would provide the United States with the opportunity and latitude for control in a situation of permanent instability. The absence of countervailing forces in a uni-polar world has only aggravated the situation. Principal among these is the weakness of the United Nations to pursue an independent line and act as a bulwark of robust multilateralism.”

Multilateralism: “The perils of unchecked uni-polarism have become glaringly obvious in the past years. This reality can only accentuate the need for bolstering the United Nations, to make it a democratic and a robust institution of multilateralism through prolonged and concerted collective efforts.”

Estonia
H.E. Mr. Toomas Hendrik Ilves, President
24 September 2008

No relevant references.

Ethiopia
H.E. Mr. Ato Seyoum Mesfin, Minister of Foreign Affairs
29 September 2008

Peace and security: “Ethiopia has consistently helped promote peace and stability in our region. We have no doubt that sustainable development will only be possible with durable peace and security.”

Terrorism and multilateralism: “Terrorism is a scourge that impedes peace and development in any part of the world. As its occurrence in any form threatens global security at large, Ethiopia believes that it should be addressed collectively. In this regard, we attach great significance to the value of dialogue among civilizations to build a culture to enable us to create closer understanding among nations, all nations.”

Multilateralism: “Ethiopia remains committed, Mr. President, to the UN reform process and its revitalization. This is critical for the credibility of the UN and for the future of multilateralism. As a founding member of the UN, Ethiopia will always remain loyal to its purposes and principles. The UN is the custodian of multilateral diplomacy. At no time since the Second World War has multilateralism and genuine co-operation been as critical as it is today. This is why we continue to need the UN as never before. It is a body that remains vital for the future of us all, developing and developed countries, alike.”

European Union
H.E. Mr. Nicolas Sarkozy, President of the French Republic
23 September 2008

Iran's nuclear programme: “Europe is saying to Iran that it respects that country, that Iran has the right to nuclear energy and that we will explore all avenues of dialogue. But it is saying to Iran with the same sincerity that it cannot accept a nuclear-armed Iran which would endanger the peace and stability of an entire region, nor can it tolerate Iran calling for the destruction of the State of Israel.”

Peace: “Europe does not want war. It does not want a war of civilizations. It does not want a war of religion. It does not want a cold war. Europe wants peace, and peace is always possible when one truly wants it.”

Terrorism: “...to fight terrorism, we cannot wait.”

Terrorism: “Europe is telling Israel ... that we will always be at Israel’s side to fight terrorism.”

Terrorism: “Europe is saying to Afghanistan that it will continue to stand by that country’s side, that it will not permit the Taliban allied with al Qaeda again to take a people hostage and turn an entire country into a terrorist base!”

Fiji
H.E. Mr. Commodore Josaia V. Bainimarama, Prime Minister and Commander of the Military Forces of the Republic of the Fiji Islands
26 September 2008

No relevant references.

Finland
H.E. Ms. Tarja Halonen, President
23 September 2008

War: “Unfortunately, armed conflicts are still a reality all over the world. Too often, we—the international community—are unable to agree on a common response. Too often, people affected by poverty and conflicts are let down.”

Peace and security: “Today and in this room, it is once again time to pledge our joint commitment to the ideas and values of the United Nations. The Charter calls us ‘to unite our strength to maintain international peace and security.’ While the concept of security has changed and become broader, it is upon us to follow this call of the Charter and translate it into action.”

France
H.E. Mr. Nicolas Sarkozy, President
23 September 2008

Iran's nuclear programme: “Europe is saying to Iran that it respects that country, that Iran has the right to nuclear energy and that we will explore all avenues of dialogue. But it is saying to Iran with the same sincerity that it cannot accept a nuclear-armed Iran which would endanger the peace and stability of an entire region, nor can it tolerate Iran calling for the destruction of the State of Israel.”

Peace: “Europe does not want war. It does not want a war of civilizations. It does not want a war of religion. It does not want a cold war. Europe wants peace, and peace is always possible when one truly wants it.”

Terrorism: “...to fight terrorism, we cannot wait.”

Terrorism: “Europe is telling Israel ... that we will always be at Israel’s side to fight terrorism.”

Terrorism: “Europe is saying to Afghanistan that it will continue to stand by that country’s side, that it will not permit the Taliban allied with al Qaeda again to take a people hostage and turn an entire country into a terrorist base!”

Gabon
H.E. Mr. Didjob Divungi Di Ndinge, Vice-President
23 September 2008
Unofficial translation by WILPF staff.

No relevant references.

Gambia
H.E. Mr. Omar A. Touray, Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs
27 September 2008

Multilateralism: “The legitimacy of multilateralism, that lies at the core of United Nations system, is being increasingly questioned. Yes, with the launching of the former Secretary-General report, ‘In Larger Freedom; Towards Development, Security and Human Rights for All’, a lot of reforms are taking place and are still taking place. However, the question is, ‘Is it enough’?”

Peace: “One of the cornerstones of The Gambia’s foreign policy is the pursuit of peace and security. As a peace loving people, it is our constant desire to contribute towards the search for lasting peace wherever there is conflict. It is for these reasons that Gambia actively participates in peace missions and also promotes good neighborliness, friendship and cooperation throughout Africa and beyond. I must register my satisfaction at the peace dividends that are today being reaped across Africa, thanks to the commitment of African leaders to finding solutions to African conflicts. We are witnessing the resurgence of hope in Sierra Leone and Liberia after many years of consolidation of peace and security. It is my delegation’s fervent hope that the international community will not relent in extending to them all the financial, technical and material support they require to turn around their societies for the better.”

Ghana
H.E. Mr. John Agyekum, President
24 September 2008

Terrorism: “Examples of the challenges which practically all previous speakers have alluded to, include ... the massive trafficking in drugs and weapons; and the spate of harrowing acts of terrorism in many parts of the world.”

Multilateralism: “It is by [the United Nations] that the world will eventually come by peace, stability and prosperity, after the menacing flux that engulfs all of us now.”

Georgia
H.E. Mr. Mikheil Saakashvili, President
23 September 2008

Security and conflict: “I come to you as the representative of one of those places, the country of Georgia, a land of fewer than 5 million, that last month was invaded by our neighbor. Despite, our small size, the legal, moral, political and security implications raised by that invasion could not be larger in consequence. Indeed, those issues cut through to the heart of the UN’s founding charter. The principles enshrined in that charter included the inviolability of sovereign borders; the sanctity of human rights; the supremacy of international law; and the global rejection of armed aggression.”

Armed aggression: “The General Assembly, therefore, faces a General Challenge. We are called upon not just to respond to the particular question of one instance of armed aggression in a single place—but to define our attitude toward armed aggression in all places.”

Georgia also commented extensively on the recent conflict in South Ossetia.

Germany
H.E. Mr. Frank-Walter Steinmeier, Deputy Federal Chancellor and Minister for Foreign Affairs
26 September 2008

Multilateralism: “The end of the East-West confrontation in the early nineties seemed to mark the dawn of a new age of effective multilateralism, while the United Nations seemed to be on the threshold of a great renaissance. Disillusionment has now set in—quicker and more profoundly than we had feared.... The world is clearly searching for a ‘new order’; and multilateralism does not always seem to be the first choice in this quest.”

Multilateralism and terrorism: “It is now generally accepted that we can only master the new challengs of the 21st century such as ... terrorism, if we act together.”

Security and terrorism: “It is clear to us that without security Afghanistan will not, and indeed cannot, develop. Equally, however, we need economic development in order to improve the security situation and to encourage people to reject fundamentalism and terror.”

Iran’s nuclear programme: “An Iran armed with nuclear weapons would pose a threat to security in the Middle East and trigger off a nuclear arms race. Therefore, Iran must put its cards on the table. We have made our offer. The Iranian side’s delaying tactics must not exhaust the patience of the international community. We expect a clear signal from Iran indicating its willingness to comply with the international community’s demands and build confidence.”

Multilateralism: “East against West, North against South: this is yesterday’s thinking. It no longer has a place in today’s world. For to resolve the problems of today and tomorrow, we all need more partners and not more opponents. The 21st century is the first in which we can only resolve problems if we work together.”

Disarmament: “The same [multilateralism] applies to disarmament policy. Only a global responsibility partnership can achieve lasting results.”

Nuclear fuel cycle and nuclear weapons: “The dangerous trend of ever more countries striving to gain access to nuclear technology or even to build nuclear weapons must be stopped. My proposal on the multilateralization of the fuel cycle showed how the risks involved can be minimized.”

CTBT: “Futhermore, I call upon all states to sign the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, the CTBT. For its entry into force would mean a huge security gain.”

Greece
H.E. Ms. Dora Bakoyannis, Foreign Minister
27 September 2008

Terrorism: “Along with protecting the weak and vulnerable, the U.N. has the responsibility to act forcefully to protect the world from the kind of fanaticism and extremism that cripple any social program. Terrorism poses a major threat to the security of our countries, to the stability of our democratic societies and to the rights and freedoms of our citizens. Around the world, whether in Afghanistan or Pakistan, Iraq or Yemen, the international community must show its strong commitment to combating terrorism while protecting human rights and the rule of law.”

Grenada
H.E. Mr. Tillman Thomas, Prime Minister
26 September 2008

Peace: “We humbly offer our government as an example of peace and reconciliation in action. We bring together people committed to service notwithstanding our politically turbulent historical background. We stand to day as proof that peace and reconciliation are possible, that our collective hope for those world regions where brothers fight brothers, and people die needlessly, is not a fanciful or vain hope, it is a valid hope that can be realized.”

Nuclear waste: “Indeed, Grenada and other Caribbean Member States derive tremendous economic benefits from these pristine waters, which are threatened by trans-shipment of nuclear waste and other hazardous materials.”

Terrorism: “No one in the developed world can deny the value of a small country like Grenada in the expansion of democracy and the fight against terrorism.”

Multilateralism: “I can assure you that Grenada intends to pursue its external relations based on the principle of mutual respect. Thus, we will be an active participant in multilateral debates on current issues.”

Terrorism: “Grenada maintains its staunch and unwavering stance in the fight against terrorism, illicit drugs, weapons and human trafficking.”

Terrorism: “Grenada strongly condemns all violent acts by those who are bent on creating chaos and panic in different regions around the world and thus supports all efforts to bring the perpetrators to justice.”

Terrorism: “Additionally, Grenada is committed to the full implementation of the recommendations adopted by the Caribbean financial Task Force to combat money laundering and terrorist financing.”

Guatemala
H.E. Mr Álvaro Colom Caballeros, President
24 September 2008

Multilateralism: “My presence barely a few months after having assumed the Presidency of my country underlines our commitment with the United Nations and with multilateralism.”

Multilateralism: “It is evident that in a world changing at an astonishing speed we need to think permanently of adapting the United Nations to address not only secular challenges but also emerging ones.… The General Assembly is the appropriate place where we can exchange views on the nature of the problems we face and offer guidance on how to address them; down the road, the operational arms of the Organization an its specialized agencies must help member states in implementing concrete actions.... We recognize the imperative of adapting the Organization to present circumstances in the world, at the level of the intergovernmental for a – particularly the Security Council – and at the level of the Secretariat.”

Terrorism: “The world suffers the ravages of terrorism and organized crime, including narco-activity. In this regard, my Government is adding its part to the global combat against these ills, adopting measures that seek not only to dispose of effective and refined security forces for this purpose, but also to strike against organized crime, the framework of the rule of law and justice. The United Nations joins us in this arduous task through the International Commission against Impunity in Guatemala (CICIG), whose valuable contribution I sincerely appreciate.”

Security: “However, the threats to security are also of another type. Social inequality, hunger, the high price of food, the use of the latter to produce bio-fuels, and global warming, all threaten security, stability, governance and in the case of climate change, even the future of the planet.”

Guinea
H.E. Mr. Ahmed Tidiane Souare, Prime Minister
26 September 2008

Waiting translation.

Guniea Bassau
H.E. Mr. João Bernardo Vieira, President of the Republic of Guinea-Bissau
25 September 2008

Peace and multilateralism: “We support the efforts of the Secretary General with the view to increasing the capacity of our organization in the maintenance of peace, in addressing global issues and as well as his proposal to introduce in the Secretariat in particular new working methods based not only in the recognition of individuals competence but also putting emphases on team work.”

Multilateralism: “The international Community must react to all these challenges. But, how can we succeed without close cooperation among all the countries of the world? ... Our main goals should be to foster dialog in all occasions and circumstances. Dialog among countries, Peoples, Cultures, Religions and Civilizations of the world.... It is only through dialog that we will be able to identify our differences and find solutions of common interest.... Dialog and negotiations at the international level to prevent and solve conflicts like in the Middle East and to Preserve the Lives of Human Being in danger, in Darfur and in Somalia for example.”

Multilateralism: “Although it is confronted with complex international situation the international community has ways of facing these challenges. However, a real political will is needed from ail of us. The United Nations can play even a more decisive roll in the prevention and resolution of conflicts, in protecting our planets and in creating better living conditions for millions of people.”

Guyana
H.E. Mr. Bharrat Jagdeo, President
23 September 2008

Multilateralism: “Guyana remains committed to the principle of multilateralism and to the principles and purposes of the United Nations Charter. Especially sacrosanct for us is the inviolability of and the respect for the territorial integrity and sovereignty of all Member States and the resolution of disputes by peaceful means.”

Multilateralism: “We must each, as countries approaching the floor to speak ... be bold enough to embark on a project to achieve real change to the multilateral system. This change must be based on mandates that are relevant, institutions that are accountable, and a context that is increasingly reflective of integration and interconnectedness.

“This brings me to the matter of the much-needed reform of our multilateral institutions. This matter has been on the agenda for some time, but it would be fair to say that it has progressed slowly and its results have been few and difficult to observe. In the case of the reform of the international financial institutions, I fear that much of this reform is driven not out of a need to respond to current world reality but out of fear that sovereign wealth funds, regional financial arrangements, and new bilateral sources of development financing would make some organisations obsolete. Instead, the reform agenda has to be driven by what is necessary for good global governance and by the need for steady and demonstrable improvement in the lives of all of the peoples of the world.

“I believe that the reforms must be pursued along certain pre-defined principles. Firstly, the institutions must have new mandates that are relevant to current circumstances, and they must have at their disposal tools to discharge these mandates effectively. Secondly, the institutions must have legitimacy and be reflective of equitable representation of their membership. Thirdly, in the discharge of their functions, they must demonstrate flexibility and responsiveness. And, fourthly, they must display the highest standards
of accountability and transparency.

“In addition, more needs to be done to democratise the institutions, align the interests of the management and staff with those of the countries they serve, and make them more accountable to the membership. In like manner, a more democratic and reformed United Nations Organisation will be better placed to play a central role in the multilateral system to serve In the interest of the international community as a whole, whether in relation to its peace and security mandates, the protection of fundamental rights, or to the promotion of development.”