logo_reaching-critical-will
   

Share

UNGA Disarmament Index 2008: H–R

This is an index of all references made to issues of disarmament, peace, and security, made in the 63rd General Debate of the United Nations General Assembly from 23–29 September 2008. Included in this index are all references made to arms control, disarmament, multilateralism, nuclear energy, security, proliferation, the arms trade, and nuclear and conventional weapons.

A–G | H–R | S–Z

Haiti | Holy See | Honduras | Hungary
Iceland
| India | Indonesia | Iran | Iraq | Ireland | Israel | Italy
Jamaica | Japan | Jordan
Kazakhstan
| Kenya | Kiribati | Kuwait | Kyrgyzstan
Laos
| Latvia | Lebanon | Lesotho | Liberia | Libya | Liechtenstein | Lithuania | Luxembourg
Macedonia | Madagascar | Malawi | Malaysia | Maldives | Mali | Malta | Marshall Islands | Mauritania | Mauritius | Mexico | Micronesia | Moldova | Monaco | Mongolia | Montenegro | Morocco | Mozambique | Myanmar
Namibia
| Nauru | Nepal | Netherlands | New Zealand | Nicaragua | Niger  | Nigeria | Norway
Oman
Pakistan
| Palau | Palestine | Panama | Papua New Guinea | Paraguay | Peru | Philippines | Poland | Portugal
Qatar
Republic of Korea | Republic of Moldova | Romania | Russian Federation | Rwanda

Haiti
H.E. Mr. René Garcia Préval, President
26 September 2008

Waiting translation.

Holy See
H.E. Archbishop Celestino Migliore, Chairperson of the Delegation
29 September 2008

Multilateralism: “The ‘we the peoples’ who formed the United Nations conceived the responsibility to protect to serve as the core basis for the United Nations. The founding leaders believed that the responsibility to protect would consist not primarily in the use of force to restore peace and human rights, but above all, in States coming together to detect and denounce the early symptoms of every kind of crisis and mobilize the attention of governments, civil society and public opinion to find the causes and offer solutions.”

Honduras
H.E. Mr. José Manuel Zelaya Rosales, President
24 September 2008

Waiting translation.

Hungary
H.E. Ms. Kinga Göncz, Minister for Foreign Affairs
27 September 2008

Multilateralism: “Our strategy, as well as our policies and actions demonstrate our commitment to uphold the rule of international law, to give priority to an effective multilateralism, to spread the culture of cooperation and peaceful settlement of international disputes, and to work towards preserving a liveable and sustainable environment for future generations.”

Disarmament and non-proliferation: “Hungary’s geographic position, as well as our expertise in ... disarmament and non-proliferation will serve as a good basis for our effective contribution to the work of this organization.”

Terrorism: “In the field of counter terrorism, the full and earliest implementation of the UN Counter-Terrorism Strategy is the most important outstanding issue, where the main responsibility is on the member states. The conclusion of the Comprehensive Convention on international terrorism also remains a high priority for the Republic of Hungary, and we fully support the work of the Ad Hoc Committee. We hope that during the sixty-third session we will be able to finalize the drafting of the Comprehensive Convention on International Terrorism.”

Iran’s nuclear programme: “The nuclear programme of Iran continues to be a matter of serious concern for my Government. Iran has failed to provide the international community with credible assurances whether its nuclear projects are in line with its international obligations. We deeply regret that the leadership of Iran has refused to abide with relevant UN Security Council resolutions. Only full and unconditional compliance by the demand to suspend its enrichment related and reprocessing activities can pave the way for re-establishing confidence in the peaceful nature of the Iranian nuclear programme and open up prospects for intensified economic and political cooperation. We hope that Iran will change its present course of confrontation and opt for a constructive dialogue with its partners.”

Iceland
H.E. Mr. Geir H. Haarde, Prime Minister of the Republic of Iceland
26 September 2008

Multilateralism: “It is perhaps an oversimplification to speak of a contest between multilateralism and unilateralism in international affairs. These different approaches frequently overlap, but it is clear that when an effective multilateral option is available, it will always be the preferred choice for most countries, especially smaller countries like mine. This should inspire us to make the UN a forum which can deliver substantive results, in accordance with international law, in order to ensure that unilateral actions on issues of major significance become less likely.”

Multilateralism: “Above all, the Nordic countries have shown unwavering commitment to multilateral cooperation and the rule of law. If elected as a member of the UN Security Council, Iceland will continue in this strong tradition.”

India
H.E. Mr. Manmohan Singh, Prime Minister
26 September 2008

Multilateralism: “The United Nations is the embodiment of our faith in the benefits of collective action and of multilateral approaches in resolving global issues.”

US-India Deal, nuclear energy, non-proliferation, disarmament: “The opening of international civil nuclear cooperation with India will have a positive impact on global energy security and on efforts to combat climate change. This is a vindication of India's impeccable record on non-proliferation and to our longstanding commitment to nuclear disarmament that is global, universal and non-discriminatory in nature. The blueprint for this was spelt out by Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi in this very august assembly twenty years ago.”

Nuclear disarmament: “I reiterate India’s proposal for a Nuclear Weapons Convention prohibiting the development, production, stockpiling and use of nuclear weapons and providing for their complete elimination within a specified time frame.”

Terrorism: “The growing assertion of separate identities and ethnic, cultural and religious intolerance threatens our developmental efforts and our peace and stability. It is vital that we strengthen international cooperation to combat terrorism and to bring the perpetrators, organisers, financers and sponsors of terrorism to justice. We should conclude expeditiously the Comprehensive Convention on International Terrorism.”

Multilateralism: “The United Nations is a living symbol of pluralism. It has weathered many storms. It is the vehicle through which our combined will and efforts to address global challenges must be articulated and implemented. Unless we rise to the task, we would bequeath to succeeding generations a world of diminishing prospects.”

Indonesia
H.E. Mr. N. Hassan Wirajuda, Minister for Foreign Affairs
27 September 2008

Militarism and military spending: “Even as we face the challenges of global warming in the physical world, we must also deal with the reality of a global chill in the politico-security field. Symptoms of that chill are the military tensions that have taken place in Eastern Europe. There is also a new arms race. There is more military spending now than at the end of the Cold War. Moreover, the conflict and tension of a year ago are still with us.”

North Korea’s nuclear programme: “North Korea, the subject of so much uncertainty today, is backsliding from its commitment to dismantle its nuclear weapon programme.”

Iran’s nuclear programme: “The nuclear issue in Iran remains unresolved.”

Multilateralism: “The sovereignty of states must be preserved if there is to be a democratic spirit in international relations. This is essential—because without democracy, a world organization like the United Nations cannot be effective. Indeed, the failure of the Security Council to come to grips with challenges to global security is due largely to the fact that it is not democratic enough.”

Iran
H.E. Mr. Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, President
23 September 2008

Disarmament: “The time has come for the IAEA to present a clear report to the international community on its monitoring of the disarmament of these nuclear powers and their nuclear activities, and for a disarmament committee to be established by independent states to monitor the disarmament of these nuclear powers.”

Iran’s nuclear programme: “With regard to Iran’s peaceful nuclear program, despite the inalienable right of all nations including the Iranian nation, in producing nuclear fuel for peaceful purposes, and despite such facts as the transparency of all Iranian activities and our country’s full cooperation with the inspectors of the IAEA and the Agency’s repeated confirmation of the fact that Iran’s activities are peaceful, a few bullying powers have sought to put hurdles in the way of peaceful nuclear activities of the Iranian nation by exerting political and economic pressures against Iran, and also through threatening and pressuring the IAEA. These are the same powers that produce new generations of lethal nuclear arms and possess stockpiles of nuclear weapons that no international organization is monitoring; and, the tragedies of Hiroshima and Nagasaki were perpetrated by one of them.

“Indeed, they are not against weapons, but they oppose other nations’ progress, and tend to monopolize technologies and to use those monopolies in order to impose their will on other nations. But it is very natural that the great Iranian people, with their trust in God, and with determination and steadfastness and with the support of its friends, will resist the bullying and has defended and will continue to defend its rights. The Iranian nation is for dialogue. But it has not accepted and will not accept illegal demands.”

Nuclear weapons, WMD, missile defense: “The never-ending arms race and the proliferation and stockpiling of nuclear and other weapons of mass destruction and the threats to use them, and the establishment of missile defense systems, have made the situation unstable.”

Iraq
H.E. Mr. Jalal Talabani, President
25 September 2008

Terrorism: “While the Iraqi people are building a new federal state based on democracy, pluralism, and the peaceful distribution of power, they have, been subjected to, and affected by, a series of terrorist acts which target all Iraqis be they Arabs, Kurds, Turkmens and Kildo Assyrian that attempted to ignite sectarian strife and undermine the political process and stability of the country, while aiming to return Iraq to the days of tyranny, backwardness, oppression, and dictatorship.

“Terrorism is a blind danger that threatens everyone. At a time when the Iraqi people call upon the representatives of the elected national government to combat its remnants, they call upon the international community, and in particular neighboring countries, to support Iraq in its effort to combat violence and terrorism, all while promoting peace, security, and stability. This positively impacts the stability and security of the region, the interests of its peoples, and the international community as a whole.

“These acts of terrorism, committed by the enemies of freedom will not discourage our people from establishing a new democratic experience, which our people paid a heavy price for. Our position requires the support and assistance from countries around the world to be able to build a modern nation which ensures justice, equality, the strengthening of the rule of law, the respect for human rights, and women’s participation in all spheres of life.

“The Iraqi Government has relentless determination towards imposing the rule of law throughout Iraq, disarming militias, fighting sectarian conflict, and building state institutions on the basis of nationalism.”

Security: “Iraq no longer threatens international peace and security, and therefore calls upon the international community to take steps towards removing Iraq from Chapter VII of the United Nations Charter, and ending settling of all actions taken by the Security Council through its resolution based on Chapter VII, including the issue of compensation.”

Terrorism, peace, security, multilateralism: “Three extensive conferences were held for Iraq’s neighboring countries, with the most recent in Kuwait in April 2008. The conferences sought to continue the coordination and cooperation in supporting the efforts of the Iraqi Government to restore peace and stability and achieve prosperity. The conferences also promoted the ongoing dialogue about national reconciliation, the fight against terrorism, strengthening the rule of law, increasing political participation, and provided nations with and opportunity to demonstrate their commitment to Iraq’s territorial integrity, unity, full sovereignty and independence, without interfering in its internal affairs, as well as affirming its commitment to implement these promises.”

Chemical weapons, terrorism, nuclear testing: “Iraq is also planning, within the priorities of its foreign policies, for the return to the international community by actively participating in meetings and conferences of the United Nations, its agencies and offices in all international issues. Iraq signed a number of UN conventions such as the conventions of the prohibition of chemical weapons and the treaty banning nuclear tests, and about to join special agreements and protocols against terrorism, amongst others.”

WMD Free Zone in the Middle East: “In order to promote peace and security in the region and in the world, we call for making the Middle East a region free of weapons of mass destruction.”

Multilateralism: “Achieving stability and prosperity demands strengthening the scope of cooperation between all nations of the world while working to establish proportionate relations between countries, in addition to the development of a global system to become more justified to assist poor and developing countries and increase the support from rich countries in order to enhance development programs in poor and developing countries.”

Ireland
H. E. Mr. Micheál Martin, Minister for Foreign Affairs of Ireland
29 September 2008

Multilateralism: “In this new century, when we speak of the ‘international community’, it cannot be as a vague platitude or as a faceless scapgoat. Global challenges confront us—climate change, economic turbulence, food and energy security, HIV/AIDS and terrorism among them. We can either be an international community passively divided and at the mercy of those forces, or we can be a community in the true sense—of active participants united by our sense of mutual solidarity, our common sense of justice, our common desire for a better and peaceful future and a shared commitment to international law and to human rights of all. The United Nations is the indispensable framework for realising the potential of that community, as it has shown again and again. Ireland is proud to have played its distinctive part in that history and we are absolutely committed to playing a full part in its future.”

Disarmament and nuclear weapons: “Creating a secure and stable world demands effective arms control and disarmament, and the elimination of nuclear weapons.”

Cluster munitions: “Ireland was very proud last May to hold the Diplomatic Conference that delivered the ‘Cluster Munitions Convention’—an historic agreement to ban the production and use of these pernicious instruments of war. The Convention is strong and ambitious. Each state party undertakes never, in any circumstances, to use, develop, produce, acquire, stockpile, retain or transfer cluster munitions, or to assist any other party in doing so. It is comprehensive and provides for no exceptions. It sets new standards for assistance to victims and also, importantly, for clearing affected areas.

“I would, once again, like to express the deep appreciation of my Government for the constructive approach taken by Member States. Without it, such a significant step forward could not have been taken. The Convention will open for signature in Oslo in December, and Ireland will be among the first signatories. I strongly urge all Governments to do likewise.”

Cluster munitions: “Ireland has watched with great distress the recent conflict in Georgia, including the evidence of the use of cluster munitions against civilian populations.”

Multilateralism: “The vision of all our peoples, of a peaceful and secure world, with justice, human rights and dignity for all, can be realised only in cooperation with others of like mind. For Ireland’s part, we are determined not to be a passive member of this formal community of nations.”

Multilateralism: “It is only by such a commitment, by each of us and through this body, that we can make the international community more than the sum of its parts, more than the sum of its fears, and instead make it what it was meant to be when the United Nations was established—the sum of all our hopes.”

Israel
H.E. Mr. Shimon Peres, President
24 September 2008

Peace: “Israel turned military victories to a peace process, knowing that the cost of life renders imperfect peace superior to perfect victories.”

Peace: “With the Palestinians, we negotiate full peace. Both parties agreed to building a Palestinian State side by side with Israel, living in peace, security and respect. We tried to conclude negotiations this year. It will take longer. But, I believe it can be accomplished within the next year.... Gaps have been narrowed through negotiations. Particularly the territorial ones. But, peace is not just a matter of territorial compromise. Rogue politics reject peace even where territorial dispute was resolved.”

Peace: “Israel, on its part, shall continue to seek peace. We suggest immediate peace with Lebanon. Israeli prime ministers indicated to Syria that for peace, we are ready to explore a comprehensive compromise.”

Peace: “Israelis and Arabs are marching towards peace.”

Iran's nuclear programme: “Iran continues to develop enriched uranium and long range missiles.... Tehran combines long range missiles and short range minds.”

Terrorism: “Terrorism did not solve a single problem. It never has, and never will. They will make the world ungovernable. If small groups of violent killers are allowed to threaten innocent masses, the world will be without order or security.”

Italy
H.E. Mr. Franco Frattini, Minister for Foreign Affairs
26 September 2008

Terrorism, nuclear proliferation, and security: “Terrorism and nuclear proliferation threaten our security.”

Multilateralism: “These global challenges demand a timely political response. A national response would be inadequate and illusory. The right response can only be global and cooperative. A dramatic new vision of global governance for the 21" century requires rules that all nations can embrace. A new vision based on three principles: inclusiveness, effectiveness and shared responsibility.”

Nuclear energy: “The fight against climate change is closely connected to energy security. We need to promote greater energy cooperation at the global level. We need to promote solutions that reconcile the need for secure supplies with sustainable energy policies, energy efficiency, and clean energy technologies. We need to promote research and development of alternative fuels sources, including renewable and nuclear energy.”

Multilateralism, terrorism, WMD: “Effective multilateral cooperation built on shared responsibility is vital to tackling the main threats to our safety and security, including terrorism and the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction.”

Terrorism: “Our vigilance against terrorism must remain high and our international cooperation intense. In the next few years we should work together on a new global pact against terrorism to be enacted in 2011 on die tenth anniversary of the tragic events of September 11. The protection of human rights and rule of law must underpin our action.”

Non-proliferation, nuclear weapons, Iran's nuclear programme: “The fight against the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction is at the center of our international commitment. In preparation for the NPT Review Conference of 20 10, Italy is ready to do its part to strengthen the Non-Proliferation Treaty, which is of fundamental importance to preventing and countering proliferation and laying the foundations for a world free of nuclear weapons. Yet we must also maintain cooperation on the peaceful use of nuclear technology, as expressly provided for by the Treaty. We thus call upon the Iranian Government to show the highest sense of responsibility by promptly meeting the conditions for a normal negotiation to reassure the international community and the countries of the region.”

Jamaica
H.E. Mr. Bruce Golding, Prime Minister
26 September 2008

Multilateralism: “Jamaica is concerned that political instability in many parts of the world, often fueled by extremism and intolerance, continues to threaten regional and international peace and security. They are neither limited in scope nor confined to national borders. Resolving these conflicts requires effective diplomacy and global cooperation and the United Nations must continue to use its good offices to secure just and peaceful settlements.”

Terrorism, nuclear weapons, WMD, small arms and light weapons, ATT: “Out intense focus on combating terrorism, transnational organized crime, elimination of nuclear arms and other weapons of mass destruction, must not marginalize the need for decisive action to curb illicit trade in small arms which facilitate internal violence in many of our countries and result in high levels of homicides. Jamaica supports the establishment of an arms trade treaty to impose strict controls on the illegal trade in small arms and ammunition.”

Japan
H.E. Mr. Taro Aso, Prime Minister of Japan
26 September 2008

Nuclear weapons and disarmament: “The government of Japan is currently preparing to submit a draft resolution on the total elimination of nuclear weapons. I believe that there is no one who questions the wholehearted commitment of the Japanese people to this issue.”

Terrorism: “And speaking of July 7, this date conjures up abhorrent memories in the United Kingdom. We, the delegates assembled here, have become newly incensed at the atrocity of the terrorist attack that took place in Islamabad five days ago. It has also turned out to be difficult to find the path towards improving the situation in Afghanistan. There has been no change whatsoever to the fact that terrorism constitutes the greatest threat to the peace and prosperity of the world.

“I believe that the international community must continue to be engaged in tenacious efforts to combat terrorism. Japan has from the start been committed to reconstruction assistance to Afghanistan and we have maintained our refueling activities in the Indian Ocean. I would like to state here that Japan will continue into the future to stand side by side with the international community and participate proactively in the fight against terrorism.”

North Korea’s nuclear programme: “Among outstanding issues in the vicinity of Japan, it goes without saying that the most pressing are those concerning North Korea.... Regarding its pledge to abandon its nuclear programmes, it is widely known that recently there has been conspicuous lack of progress. In parallel with the actions that North Korea would take, I am prepared to take actions towards the resolution of the outstanding issues of concern between Japan and North Korea and the settlement of the unfortunate past between us, moving Japan-North Korea relations forward. What we await is action by North Korea. I will also continue to pursue the abandonment of North Korea’s nuclear capabilities and its nuclear weapons through the framework of the Six-Party Talks.”

Multilateralism: “That leads me to say that China and the Republic of Korea are each important partners for Japan and countries with which Japan must seek to increase mutual benefits and shared interests. Japan must promote multilayered cooperation with both of these countries as well as with ASEAN. Together, we must enhance the peace and prosperity of the East Asian region, and beyond, the world peace and prosperity.”

Peace: “Even though they have suffered setbacks at times, the citizens of Japan, who have so vigorously pursued the building of the economy, have been guided by a single philosophy until the present day, that peace and happiness are most certainly within our grasp through the pursuit of economic prosperity and democracy.”

Jordan
H.E. M. Salah Bashir, Minister for Foreign Affairs
29 September 2008


Militarism and terrorism: “I would like to add to that the challenges, which have imposed upon us by the continuation of the military occupation and denying people the right to their self-determination and the right to free expression of its identity, and the growing crisis of conflict between cultures, as well as the scourge of international terrorism and extremism.”

Multilateralism: “The most important work being carried out by the United Nations for our region, the Middle East, is that it was and still is the custodian of the international law. It governs the international relations and it is the standard by which we measure progress made in our international community on one hand, and forms the objective approach of maintaining international peace and security, on the other hand.”

WMD Free Zone in the Middle East: “Making the Middle East, a zone free from weapons of mass destruction is a prerequisite to ensure peace and stability in the region. Because of our belief in the high preventive goals of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, and for the sake of non-proliferation of nuclear weapons in our region, like all the countries of the region, with the exception of Israel, we acceded to this Treaty, which has been in force since 1970. On this basis, we call upon the international community and the influential states in the world to ensure the accession of all the countries of the region to this International Treaty. It is also important to strengthen international monitoring mechanisms to ensure that the Middle East is a zone free from nuclear weapons and in order not to give a pretext to the states have not yet acceded to continue on its nuclear military programmes.”

Iran’s nuclear programme, nuclear energy: “Concerning the Iranian nuclear issue, we believe that every nation should exercise its right to the peaceful use of nuclear energy. We in Jordan, strongly call for a peaceful solution to this issue.”

Security: “Jordan attaches importance to promoting security and stability in the Arab Gulf area, in accordance with principles of international legitimacy, good neighborliness and non-interference in the internal affairs of other States. We welcome any effective contribution by the Arab States in any endeavour would maintain undiminished security and the stability of the Arab region.”

Terrorism: “Jordan, like the whole area, suffered from the scourge of terrorism. This has made us more vigilant and more determined to combat terrorism effectively in order to eradicate it. Jordan upholds international counter-terrorism conventions and values the international cooperation in this area. In addition, it takes the necessary measures at the national level, including, legislative measures to combat this scourge effectively to support the international efforts in the area of combating terrorism.”

Kazakhstan
H.E. Mr. Marat Tazhin, Minister of Foreign Affairs
27 September 2008

Disarmament, non-proliferation, WMD, nuclear weapons, arms race: “Despite the efforts being undertaken, the world is not becoming a safer place. We still have to admit that there is no international consensus on issues of disarmament and nonproliferation of weapons of mass destruction. Paradoxically, the role of the nuclear factor as an element of global politics does not decrease but on the contrary, becomes even more and more important. The world is on the threshold of another round of the arms race at a higher technological level.

“As known, history may repeat itself, if we do not properly learn its lessons. Therefore, nuclear disarmament and enhanced non-proliferation regimes should unconditionally become a priority for all. Kazakhstan, the country that voluntarily relinquished the fourth largest nuclear arsenal, believes that it is absolutely imperative to develop new mechanisms that would allow adapting the Treaty on Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons to the new realities.”

CTBT: “We call on Member States to speedily finalize necessary procedures, so that the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty could enter into force and its verification mechanism could be strengthened. This is exactly the purpose of an Integrated Field Experiment on On-site Inspections that is being currently conducted in our country at the former Semipalatinsk nuclear testing ground.”

Outer space, conventional weapons, small arms and light weapons: “We wholeheartedly support the initiative regarding the adoption of a treaty on prevention of the arms race in outer space, as well as measures against illicit trafficking of conventional arms, including those that allow effective monitoring of compliance with the UN embargoes and the implementation of the programme of action in the area of small arms.”

Terrorism and nuclear weapons: “The crisis of non-proliferation regimes has brought about a real threat of terrorists getting hold of nuclear weapons. Kazakhstan actively participates in the Global Initiative to Combat the Acts of Nuclear Terrorism, and, in this regard hosted this year the Atom-Antiterror exercises and an international conference on the physical protection of nuclear material.”

Terrorism: “Combating international terrorism remains a global problem, which requires the unity and determination of the entire international community. Having signed all universal conventions in this field, Kazakhstan operates actively within the frameworks of regional antiterrorist structures.

“We believe that further improvement of the international legal norms on fighting terrorism and speedy adoption of a comprehensive convention on international terrorism will fully serve the interests of all Member States.

“The situation in Afghanistan remains a matter of grave concern. From the outset, Kazakhstan provides all necessary support to the international anti-terrorist coalition operating in this country with the approval of the UN Security Council.”

Kenya
H.E. Mr. Mwai Kibaki, President
23 September 2008

Security: “Indeed, the challenge of attaining democratic and inclusive elected governments is at the core of prevailing conflicts and insecurity in many parts of Africa.”

Security: “Indeed, the rapid increase in oil prices is hurting developing countries the most, and does not augur well for international peace and security.”

Peace and security: “With regard to the Great Lakes, tremendous progress has been made in promoting peace, while reducing conflict in the region. The conclusion of the Pact on Security, Stability and Development in the region has given impetus to our efforts.”

Security and multilateralism: “We have over the years discussed the need for a more effective and accountable United Nations that will enable us to address the emerging and persistent global challenges such as climate change, international security, poverty, conflicts and economic disparities.”

Multilateralism: “I wish to note that the challenges facing us today, such as the global food crisis, attaining the MDGs, and climate change more than ever before require coordinated global and multilateral cooperation. A more effective and accountable United Nations is therefore needed to meet and overcome these challenges.”

Kiribati
H.E. Mr Anote Tong, President
25 September 2008

Terrorism: “We, in the pacific, have been strong supporters of the fight against terrorism. We now turn to those we have partnered in the fight against terrorism to partner us in our fight against climate change.”

Multilateralism: “The challenges we face are global in nature and thus require global solutions. We call upon the UN to take the lead in addressing these challenges, especially in funding, supporting and facilitating the implementation of practical solutions to the security challenges that threaten the very existence of peoples and nations, which in turn pose a threat to international peace and security.”

Kuwait
H.E. Mr. Sheikah Nasser, Prime Minister
25 September 2008

Nuclear Energy and Iran: “While the State of Kuwait, stresses the right of all states to produce, develop, use nuclear energy for peaceful purposes within the framework of the Non-Proliferation Treaty, it calls upon the Islamic Republic of Iran to continue its cooperation, with transparency, with the International Atomic Energy Agency in order to dispel the fears doubts about the nature of its nuclear program, also to address all outstanding issues.”

Multilateralism, security, terrorism, and WMD: “These challenges, in addition to security challenges, such as terrorism, proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, and the violation of human rights, pose a serious threat to international peace and security, meeting them require prompt, collective, united and firm action under the umbrella of the United Nations.”

WMD and nuclear weapons: “It calls upon the international community to continue its efforts to seek a peaceful solution which would spare our Region any crisis or wars which could lead to undermining its security and stability, also to deal seriously and without favouritism with Israel, the only country in the region not party to the NPT, to subject all of its nuclear facilities under the Safeguard Regime of the IAEA. This would pave the way for declaring the Middle East a region free form all kinds of weapons of mass destruction.”

Kyrgyzstan
H. E. Mr. Nur Uulu Dosbol, State Secretary
29 September 2008

Awaiting translation.

Lao People’s Democratic Republic
H. E. M. Thongloun Sisoulith, Deputy Prime Minister and Minister for Foreign Affairs
29 September 2008


Multilateralism: “The Lao PDR is of the belief that the United Nations remains an important and preeminent forum for addressing issues relating to international cooperation for economic development, peace and security, and human rights and the rule of law, based on dialogue, cooperation and consensus-building amongst States. For over half a century, the UN has played a crucial role in maintaining international peace and security and promoting the socio-economic advancement of member States, especially developing countries.”

Peace: “The Secretary-General’s personal dedicated engagement for the cause of peace as well as his endeavours in search for solutions to the three global crises of finance, fuel and food deserve special recognition.”

Disarmament, nuclear weapons, non-proliferation: “The current difficult and complex situation in the field of disarmament continues to be a cause of concern. We recognize the threat posed by the permanent existence of nuclear weapons and the possible use or threat to use them. It is hence incumbent upon the nuclear States to honour their unequivocal commitment to work towards the total elimination of nuclear weapons. Renewed efforts are needed to resolve the impasse in achieving nuclear disarmament and nonproliferation in all its aspects.”

Peace: “The goal of achieving peace and prosperity remains the highest priority of the international community. Yet, this goal remains impeded by interstate conflict, terror, and unlawful unilateral sanctions and interventions.”

Peace: “I can not conclude without reaffirming that development remains central and must come first for the intertwined peace and human rights to succeed. Therefore the full, timely and effective implementation of the outcomes of the major UN Summits and Conferences is indispensable. The Lao PDR reiterates its unshakable commitment to continued full cooperation with the international community in pursuit of a world free from fear and want, rooted in a new, just and equitable order.”

Latvia
H.E. Mr. Valdis Zatlers, President of the Republic of Latvia
24 September 2008

Security: “Today I will start by addressing the security situation of the world. During the past year the international community has witnessed a rise in understanding of frozen conflicts. Frozen does not mean solved. It means these conflicts can reemerge. Therefore I am particularly glad that of significant improvements in solving long-lasting conflicts in some regions.”

Peace: “Prospects of peace and stability in the Middle East affect the whole world. Latvia hopes that the peace negotiations between the Israeli Government and the Palestinian Authority will bring results. We hope that the parties will use the window of opportunity to conclude the Peace Agreement by the end of 2008.”

Multilateralism: “Effective multilateralism requires combining greater awareness of the nature of risks we face with contemporary understanding of how international politics are forged today. International organizations are only one part of our global system—and often this parties most resistant to change. It is regrettable that enthusiasm and momentum generated during the World Summit 2005 in reforming this universal international body has somewhat faded.”

Multilateralism and security: “We live in a world with a deteriorating security, growing population, consequences of climate change, and market turbulences, aggravated by the high energy and food prices. We need a deeper engagement with the risks we face globally. This requires a new commitment to our values and willingness to work for an international system that has a vision of the future at its heart. I wish this to become the driving force for all the work of this 63rd session of the General Assembly.”

Lebanon
H.E. General Michel Sleiman, President
23 September 2008

Landmines and cluster munitions: “Obtaining all the maps of landmines and sites of cluster bombs planted and left behind by Israel on Lebanese soil. Their presence constitutes a direct threat to the civilian population, especially children, and deprives the farmers and workers of cultivating their land. The States concerned are therefore called upon to meet their pledges to provide the necessary sources of funding to complete the demining program and get rid of those deadly bombs.”

Peace and security: “Following up closely the developments of the situation in the Middle East, and in view of its commitment to Arab causes, especially the just cause of Palestine, and of the direct implications such developments have on its security and stability, Lebanon reiterates its commitment to the process of achieving just and comprehensive peace in the region and to the Arab peace initiative that was unanimously adopted by the Arab leaders at the 2002 Beirut Summit.”

Peace, security, war, and terrorism: “More than sixty years ago, and following a ravaging war, a group of nations decided to shape a better future for their children and for the world by renewing the idea of cooperation and unity among nations in this Organization in a bid to maintain international peace and security and pursue global social and economic interdependence, with a view to contributing to the protection of human rights in all its forms. While mankind has been able to avoid global new wars, the growing regional conflicts, the emergence of international terrorism as a phenomenon that transcends country borders, the uncertainties marring the globalized economy, and the emergence of the global food crisis, threaten further low-intensity wars that might break out in more than one region or more than one area.”

Terrorism: “Confronting terrorism in all its forms and maintaining internal peace. The Lebanese Army and the Internal Security Forces have been subject to brutal attacks by terrorist groups in recent years. They were forced to confront them and make dear and huge sacrifices to defend the dignity of Lebanese, their security and stability. In their efforts to combat Israeli terrorist operations, the Lebanese security services managed to arrest the head of an Israeli network that carried out operations of espionage and assassinations on Lebanese soil.”

Lesotho
H.E. Mr. Mohlabi K. Tsekoa, Minister of Foreign Affairs and International Relations
27 September 2008

Peace: “Peace and development are closely inter-related and are mutually reinforcing. The United Nations cannot afford the luxury of complacency in its mandate for the maintenance of world peace and stability.”

War: “Most importantly, let us not forget that the United Nations Organization was born from the ashes of a devastating world war. Indeed, the primary purpose of the United Nations was and continues to be to eliminate future wars and to create sustainable international security. But every year we witness the emergence of new hotspots and designer wars, as some big and powerful states resort more and more to the use of force. Every time these states try to pursue the illusory goal of imposing by force their will on others, they create more unstable and more dangerous world.”

Liberia
H.E. Ms. Ellen Johnson-Sirleaf, President
23 September 2008

Peace, security, terrorism, disarmament, nuclear weapons, small arms and light weapons: “From our experience as a founding member, Liberia is committed to contributing to the re-definition of international peace and security that is strongly linked to, and demands the promotion of Economic Growth and Sustainable Development, particularly food security, relief from the debt burden, globalization and fair trade. We believe in a peace and security environment that combats … the fight against international terrorism, drug and other international crimes; in disarmament, especially the elimination of nuclear weapons and the control of small arms and light weapons.”

Peace and war: “As current chair of MRU, I can say on behalf of my colleagues that the countries of that basin have declared ‘never again to war and all forms of armed violence’. The MRU will henceforth be the net exporter of peace and all the dividends that come with peace in West Africa.”

Small arms and light weapons, Arms Trade Treaty: “Armed conflicts as we have seen in Liberia and the world over are exacerbated by easy access to small arms and light weapons. Thus, as a part of the efforts for durable peace in conflict zones, we must put into place rigid measures to ensure effective controls of these weapons. My government, in the same vein, supports the Arms Trade Treaty. We continue to champion the call for total and complete nuclear disarmament in order to prevent the world from self-annihilation.”

Terrorism: “These fears are not unfounded if one image such weapons in the hands of a terrorist. But the threat of terrorism—the senseless destruction of innocent lives and property, often times including oneself beats every imagination. The world must unite to fight this scourge. No nation is protected against it.”

Libyan Arab Jamahiriya
H.E. Mr. Giadalla A. Ettalhi, Chairman of the Delegation
29 September 2008

WMD, nuclear energy: “Out of our belief in the purposes of the UN Charter which calls for the establishment of a world in which peace and security prevail, and in view of the fact that riddance of weapons of mass destruction is an essential factor in building confidence and in the enhancement of peace, security and stability in the world, my country has voluntarily relinquished all its programs of weapons of mass destruction, which are internationally prohibited, emphasizing, however, its right to use atomic energy for peaceful purposes.”

Non-proliferation, WMD Free Zone in the Middle East: “We strongly refuse, however, the use of double standards in dealing with the issue of nuclear non-proliferation. We condemn, any discrimination between one state and another in this respect, and call for making the Middle East a free zone form all weapons of mass destruction.”

Landmines: “The Ottawa Agreement concerning anti-personnel mines should be reviewed. The agreement should also include the concerns of many countries such as requiring the states, which planted these mines to remove them and provide remedies for all the inflicted damages, including the treatment of people injured by those mines and compensating them, as well [as] the rehabilitation of the damaged environment.

“Powerful states do not need anti-personnel mines to defend themselves. Those mines are the means of weak states to defend themselves. The powerful sates, therefore, which guarantee their security against foreign invasion of their lands, by strategic and fatal possess offensive weapons, and can only use defensive weapons, the least of which are mines.”

Terrorism: “The phenomenon of terrorism still constitutes a preoccupation for all member of the international community. Despite all the measures taken to combat terrorism, thanks to international cooperation under the umbrella of the United Nations, this issue still represents a challenge to the international community and an obstacle to achievement of development, security and stability in various parts of the world.

“Eradication of this phenomenon requires the adoption of a specific definition of terrorism. Terrorism is not to be confused with the legitimate right of peoples to struggle and resistance of foreign occupation in order to obtain their freedom and independence, as well as their right to self-determination. Furthermore, associating terrorism with any specific religion, nationality or culture will inflame conflicts between civilizations, religions and cultures. Such a situation is incompatible with the goals of international relations based on mutual respect between different states, cultures, and systems of governments. In this respect, we wish to point out that the policies and practices of foreign occupation based on violations of human rights, guaranteed by all international covenants and conventions, constitutes one of the worst forms of terrorism in our modern world.”

“Under the pretext of democracy and respect for human rights, which are noble goals, those countries have opened the door of political asylum to all seekers, including thieves, smugglers of their countries’ funds, fugitives from punishment, as well as terrorists, enabling them to continue their subversive activities against their countries.

“My country feels, therefore, that the establishment of international criteria and controls which govern political asylum, carefully observing human rights, has a paramount importance, and will have positive impact on combating corruption, terrorism, as well as spreading democracy and avoiding armed conflicts.”

Liechtenstein
H.E. Ms. Rita Kieber-Beck, Minister for Foreign Affairs
29 September 2008


Multilateralism: “Indeed, it is the United Nations that gives hope to people around the globe; and it is the United Nations that gives political leaders a unique tool to solve problems and to settle conflicts.... we must keep turning to the United Nations to solve our problems together and to protect those most in need and danger. We applaud the Secretary-General and the dedicated UN personnel for their hard work. Nevertheless; The organization is sometimes marred in bureaucracy, inefficiency and political infighting. But the blame falls mainly on us, the Member States. It is our responsibility to adapt the United Nations to today’s challenges and to make it the best possible organization to this end. We must equip the organization with the resources it needs and make the necessary adjustments to its structure.”

Multilateralism: “Liechtenstein is a strong believer in multilateralism and in a rule-based international system. Our national sovereignty is grounded in international law and its observance, and we are therefore strongly committed to the rule of law. These principles were chief among our motivation to join the United Nations eighteen years ago, and they have been high among our priorities as a member ever since. The rule of law has gained much prominence in the work of the United Nations over the past few years. But it has yet to take the central place that it is due. The most precious asset of this organization remains the legitimacy it lends to decisions of the international community. In fact, the United Nations symbolizes the rule of law in international relations. We must preserve this strength and therefore promote the rule of law also within the UN organs and their decision-making, including in the Security Council. Together with other countries, we have expressed longstanding concerns about the current practice of the Security Council on the sanctions listing and delisting, in particular in the area of counter-terrorism. There should be no doubt that we fully support these sanctions regimes, which constitute powerful tools for the maintenance of international peace and security. But we also believe that the procedures applied must be in accordance with basic international standards of due process. Recent court decisions indicate that our reservations are well founded, and we hope that our proposals will contribute to the improvement of the system. We must avoid the impression that decisions of the Security Council might be in violation of human rights standards.”

Lithuania
H.E. Mr. Valdas Adamkus, President
23 September 2008

Security and multilateralism: “The United Nations cannot be a mere passive observer if and when universal values and international law are under threat. Still, too often we remain observers in the face of mounting security crisis.”

Security: “It is only through integration that a truly indivisible security can be achieved. Indivisible security has a special meaning and importance for smaller nations who have all too often fall victims to the redrawing of maps.”

Security and multilateralism: “It is my conviction that interaction and cooperation between different organizations, like the OSCE, the EU, NATO, and the Council of Europe, have been and should remain the foundation of security and stability in Europe. It has its difficulties and deficiencies. But it has no alternative and new alternatives are not needed here. I am deeply worried by new calls to revise the institutional structure of European security rather than follow the commitments taken before the whole international community.”

Security and multilateralism: “Security, based on cooperation, should remain the basic principle of different European organizations and of international relations on the whole. The philosophy of the ‘balance of power,’ which is again growing popular in some capitals, has no place in contemporary Europe.”

Security and multilateralism: “Because security is indivisible, it in the interest of the international community that the UN plays a greater role in strengthening preventive diplomacy and making the principle of ‘Responsibility to Protect’ work.”

Terrorism and multilateralism: “Evidently, the UN cannot continue with business as usual. It needs reform and a greater role in areas that will determine the future of the 21st century, such as energy, information security, fight against terrorism and fundamentalism, and the like.”

Luxembourg
H.E. Mr. Jean Asselborn, Minister of Foreign Affairs and Immigration
26 September 2008

Waiting translation.

Macedonia
H.E. Mr. Branko Crvenkovski, President of the Republic of Macedonia
25 September 2008

Multilateralism: “Through [Srgjan Kerim’s] engagement, my country, the Republic of Macedonia, has confirmed in the best possible way the values for which we stand and the principles in which we believe when it comes to international relationships, namely the multilateralism as the key tool for cooperation and promotion of the fundamental values – peace, democracy and human rights and freedoms.”

Peace, security, and terrorism: “Speaking of issues in regard to the sustainability of peace and security, unfortunately, we have to not that presently there are not many reasons for satisfaction. We are still facing numerous crisis situations, old and frozen conflicts, but also a series of recent turbulent incidents and tensions in several regions of the world. The terrorist acts are still occurring with worrying frequency, and we, the member countries, are still lacking the strength to read consensus regarding the truly necessary global convention for fight against this evil.”

Multilateralism: “The above mentioned tendencies are justly inciting some people to bring up the issue of the relevance of the United Nations in the present context, as well as the issues of the meaning of multilateralism and its true range, and the selective implementation of international law and principles.”

Madagascar
H.E. Mr. Marc Ravalomanana, President
23 September 2008

Multilateralism: “An important obstacle to making progress in developing countries and to achieving the MDGS is the lack of shared decision-making power in international institutions and global forums. I would like to see a United Nations that can mobilize resources and political will to tackle the toughest of problems – and succeed. I am optimistic. I believe that we can turn the situation around. I appeal to you as leaders of the world. Everyone needs to contribute to the international basket: more goodwill, more motivation, more technical assistance, more coordinated efforts and much more financial resources. If you are committed, if we are all committed, we can confront these crises and we can still reach the Millennium Development Goals. We can win this!”

Security and war: “We are facing a global food crisis, a global economic crisis, and a global security crisis with war and political hostilities spreading throughout the globe.… These global crises are of such importance that they are threatening to push the Millennium Development Goals into the margins of our agenda. If we allowed this to happen, this would be a major mistake. We have to remain focused on the achievement of the MDGs. In doing so, we will also contribute to solving some of these other complex global issues.”

War: “Many of the resources that have been dedicated to achieving the MDGs are now being directed elsewhere. They are used to reconstruct countries destroyed by wars and to rehabilitate societies faltering as a result of social conflicts.... I understand that countries devastated by wars and other armed conflicts ... need assistance.... What I do not understand, however, is that these challenges sometimes offer reasons for countries to abdicate on their promises of doubled aid for education, health and infrastructure in order to achieve the MDGs in developing countries, especially in Africa.”

Malawi
H.E. Mr. Bingu Wa Mutharika, President
24 September 2008

No relevant references.

Malaysia
H.E. Dr. Rais Yatim, Minister of Foreign Affairs
27 September 2008

Terrorism: “New threats to peace and security continue to pose additional challenges to the international community. Terrorism, transnational crimes and piracy are but a few of the challenges that confront us. Already, the scourge of terrorism international waters piracy has taken its toll on States.”

Maldives
H.E. Mr. Ahmed Khaleel, Chairperson of the Delegation
29 September 2008

Terrorism: “Organized crime and terrorism are continuing to menace the maintenance of international peace and security. The recent bombings in India and Pakistan are yet another tragic reminder of the evil and insidious nature of terrorism. It is therefore important for the international community to ensure that the war against terrorism remains a priority on the international agenda.

“The continued scourge of terrorism is particularly alarming when seen in the context of the spread of nuclear arms and other weapons of mass destruction. The threat of a terrorist organization gaining access to such weapons is extremely alarming.

“I am happy to not that the Maldives is now party to almost all international conventions on counter terrorism. Despite its limited resources and expertise, the Maldives has been actively working towards implementing its various regional and multilateral obligations under the international counter terrorism regime. As such, I would like to take this opportunity to reiterate our commitment to combat global terrorism, specifically to Security Council resolution 1373 and 1540.”

Multilateralism and terrorism: “Its universal character and the multilateralism that it embodies, hold true to the ideals and virtues upon which it was founded and, without doubt, provide the only viable framework for solving the world’s greatest challenges including climate change, sustainable development, human rights and global terrorism.”

Mali
H.E. Mr. Moctar Ouane, Minister for Foreign Affairs
27 September 2008

Waiting translation.

Malta
H.E. Mr Lawrence Gonzi, Prime Minister
26 September 2008

Terrorism: “Likewise, the fight against terrorism must remain high on our agenda. We should not lower our guard. We must always be vigilant and ready to take collective and practical action on a daunting, complex and politically sensitive challenge. Terrorism has no boundaries and the unspeakable acts of terrorism can strike anywhere, anytime, in poor and rich countries, with innocent victims paying for these vicious terror attacks, as the one perpetrated in Pakistan last week, which undermine the human rights and fundamental freedoms of the individual and of society itself.”

Marshall Islands
H.E. Mr. Litokwa Tomeing, President
25 September 2008

Terrorism and security: “Earlier this month, the United States commemorated the 7th anniversary of the tragic loss of lives resulting from barbaric acts carried out against eh American people on September 11, 2001. The event threatened our collective security, prompting a response in support against acts of terrorism.”

Peace: “While the ideal of peace envisioned by the framers of the Charter of the United Nations 63 years ago is yet to be fully achieved, this should not be a cause for dispair. People of goodwill everywhere have expressed their yearning for world peace.”

Peace: “I believe, Mr. President, that time has come for the United Nations to convoke an international convention where the fundamental principles and tenets of permanent world peace may be deliberated.

“Such a bold step, Mr. President, will draw our attention more sharply to our true nature, to existing constructive forces, and to the need for unifying social structures that can foster the establishment of a truly new world order, and global society animated by principles of social justice.

“Today, Mr. President, nothing is more urgent, more imperative and more important upon this great institution than the establishment of world peace, one that is permanent and firmly rests upon the bedrock of justice.”

Mauritius
H.E. Mr. Somduth Soborun, Chairperson of the Delegation
29 September 2008

Terrorism: “On top of these; climate change, high food and energy prices and terrorism put in jeopardy hard-earned development gains.”

War: “War, conflict and human rights violations are closely co-related. Situations of conflict and war inevitably give rise to violations of human rights and atrocities against innocent civilians. Displacement and violent death continue to be the lot of far too many in parts of the Middle East, Africa and Asia.”

Terrorism: “The grave and pervasive threat of terrorism knows no boundaries. No country is shielded from its pernicious and devastating impact. Mauritius is committed to the UN Global Counter-Terrorism Strategy. It is imperative that we conclude a comprehensive convention against terrorism as soon as possible to reinforce the existing legal framework. As part of its contribution to the international efforts to combat terrorism in all its forms and manifestations, Mauritius has joined, in June 2008, the Global Initiative to Combat Nuclear Terrorism.”

Multilateralism: “We fully share your view aiming at the democratization of our organization. The ongoing discussions on the Revitalization of the UN General Assembly, the System Wide Coherence, Mandate Review and Management Reform in the context of the UN reform process should be aimed at strengthening multilateralism.”

Awaiting unofficial translation of second half of Mauritius’ statement.

Mauritania
H.E. Mr. Abderrahim Ould Hadrami, Chairperson of the Delegation
29 September 2008

Terrorism: “In the field of security, and as a result of his laxity and refusal to listen to the advice of security services, a number of terrorist acts took place for the first time in the country’s history as a result of the release of a number of terrorists who were in custody until he took office.”

“The fact that there are outstanding questions which remained without any solution for long periods of time, the widening gap between the poor and rich, the unfair world economic structure and the absence of any approaches to spread justice, equality and fairness, have all contributed to the creation of pockets of tension and the phenomenon of extremism and terrorism.

“We, in Mauritania, reject terrorism in all its forms. To the extent we condemn terrorism, we adhere to our Islamic tolerant values, which reject violence and extremism and call for tolerance and brotherhood. We believe that the international family should seriously consider the causes of this phenomenon and ways of facing it so that we may eradicate it fully form our world.”

Mexico
H.E. Mr. Felipe Calderón Hinojosa, President
24 September 2008

Security: “Threats to global security are not only the result of conflict between states, but of the challenges posed by the activities on non state actors such as international organized crime groups and drug trafficking.”

Security and weapons: “Mexico and Latin American face security threats that are a good example of common challenges: the illicit drug, weapons and human trafficking knows no borders. Latin America is today one of the regions of the world with the most violent deaths, which has become one of the most limiting aspects of our development.”

Terrorism: “Terrorism, whatever its justification or ideological motivations, has no place in the community of values that we have forged with so much difficulty. Mexico condemns it and affirms its will to cooperate on the basis of international law in order to prevent terrorist acts and to punish its authors.”

Multilateralism: “The United Nations is the forum that best represents the diversity of human beings, the plurality of nations and the collective aspirations of wellbeing and progress for our civilization. I am talking about a privileged alliance formed to guarantee a world of peace and justice, of security and development where all can enjoy its opportunities and wellbeing.”

Multilateralism: “Multilateralism is the way of the 21st century. It is the integrated response to globalization. We must pool our strength in order to make it possible for the UN to make into reality the dream of its founders: peace, security and development for all the peoples of the planet.”

Micronesia
H.E. Mr Emanuel Mori, President
25 September 2008

No relevant references.

Moldova
H.E. M. Andrei Stratan, Deputy Prime Minister and Minister for Foreign Affairs and European Integration
29 September 2008


Terrorism: “The Review meeting on the assessment of the implementation of the Global Counter- Terrorism Strategy (4 September 2008) emphasized both the progresses registered by the UN and its member states during the last years and the deficiencies in fighting international terrorism. In this context I would like to reaffirm that as party to 13 international conventions and other regional and bilateral treaties in this field, the Government of the Republic of Moldova takes concrete steps in fighting terrorism in accordance with the provisions of those instruments, of the relevant Security Council resolutions and national documents, including the National Strategy of Prevention and Fighting Money Laundering and Terrorism Funding.

“The Republic of Moldova will further undertake all possible steps for contributing to the UN’s actions in consolidating international legislation in the field of countering international terrorism, especially in view of finalizing development and adoption of the Comprehensive Convention on International Terrorism and organization of the High Level Conference on Terrorism under the UN auspices. We consider that in the framework of the above activities increased attention should be given to the issues related to fighting terrorism fueled by separatist tendencies that affect states’ sovereignty and territorial integrity.”

Multilateralism: “At the same time we rely on the support and opportunities offered by the UN and member states in view of promoting political, social and economic policies of the country and European integration aspirations, ensuring settlement of the Transdniestrian conflict, withdrawal of foreign military troops and accomplishment of the development priorities of the country. I would like to reiterate the attachment of the Republic of Moldova to the ideals of the United Nations and the commitment to continuously cooperate with the member states for achieving the important objectives of the Organizations.”

Monaco
H.E. Mr. Franck Bianchéri, Government Counsellor for External Relations and International Economic and Financial Affairs
27 September 2008

Waiting translation.

Mongolia
H.E. Mr. Bayar Sanj, Prime Minister
24 Setember 2008

Terrorism: “Global problems ranging from poverty, violence, inequality and disparity, terrorism, HIV/AIDS, natural disasters and other acute problems have been further impeded by current global financial, food and energy crisis.”

Multilateralism: “As we live in an increasingly globalized and interdependent world, the solutions demand our concerted action.”

Multilateralism: “Constructive engagement in world affairs through multilateral cooperation mechanisms with the UN at the center, and deeper integration into the world economy will thus continue to be the cornerstone of Mongolia’s foreign policy. I understand all too well that existence of a stable, peaceful and prosperous world is a condition sine qua non for a fulfillment of my of any other government’s promise to its people.”

Multilateralism: “And it is no accident that in the face of the pressing need to formulate our shared vision on how to collectively address these complex challenges we turn to the United Nations. The United Nations has throughout manifested its undisputed authority in identifying ways and means to address major global problems. Yet, we also agree that our world Organization needs to be reformed and adapted to the evolving realities with a view to ensuring its efficient functioning. Some important steps to this end have already been taken.”

Multilateralism: “In our globalized world, no nation can achieve its goals all on its own and neither can Mongolia. Constructive engagement in world affairs through multilateral cooperation mechanisms with the UN at the center, and deeper integration into the world economy will thus continue to be the cornerstone of Mongolia’s foreign policy. I understand all to well that existence of a stable, peaceful and prosperous world is a condition sine qua non for a fulfillment of my or any other government’s promise to its people. With this in mind, I wish to reaffirm Mongolia’s strong resolve to continue its active engagement in the work of the United Nations and other multilateral organizations and processes and her commitment to the world Organisation as a central coordinating instrument of common efforts of the family of nations to address complex challenges of our times.”

Nuclear Power: “The most effective way to mitigate these factors is to improve energy efficiency and pursue energy diversification. In this regard, Mongolia commends efforts of member states and international organizations in the field of research, development, deployment, and transfer of innovative energy technologies such as renewables, cleaner and low-carbon technologies, and nuclear power.”

Montenegro
H.E. Mr. Filip Vujanovic, President of Montenegro
26 September 2008

Multilateralism: “Multilateralism as the core of the international system inspires strong motivation and commitment. That is why the United Nations provides a reliable framework for maintaining international peace and security, strengthening democracy, protection of human rights and freedoms, respect for the international law, and fostering economic and social development of states.”

Multilatearlism, WMD, and terrorism: “Challenges that we are facing today – political problems, hotspots, blatant violation of human rights and freedoms, proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, terrorism, environmental degradation and climate change – do require adequate response and decisive action. We believe that no effective or lasting response is possible without a joint action of the entire international community.”

Morocco
H.E. Mr. Abbas El Fassi, Prime Minister of the Kingdom of Morocco
27 September 2008

Multilateralism: “Twenty years ago, the Fall of the Berlin Wall marked the end of the Cold War era that had been characterized by ideological divisions, arms race and a weak multilateral system with inefficient mechanisms.

“With the end of this era came great hope from the world's peoples, leading some to believe in the beginning of a new world order. A world order that would not only be more fair and equitable, but also distinguished by a culture of forgiveness among its nations. This new order was also meant to spread the values of democracy and human rights, giving priority to development and a better exploitation of technological advancemen.t At the same time, some people predicted that this new world order would restore esteem to the United Nations and enable it to succeed in building consensus on international issues. The UN would thus be empowered to implement its strategies aiming to foster peace and security, encourage development, and spread universal values,

“Despite the expectations of a better world that followed the end of the cold war, today's reality is one of an increase in regional and internal conflicts, especially in the African continent. This situation is exacerbated by a race for energy resources and a frenzied exploitation of precious minerals.

“The weak role of the UN in maintaining peace and security throughout the world during the Cold War period was followed by a new phase, during which the multilateral system became characterized by the convening of several meetings and conferences focusing on different issues, as well as the deployment of numerous peacekeeping operations, especially in Africa. ... Nevertheless, some weaknesses remain regarding internal coordination among the various UN bodies, as well as between the Organization itself and other regional organizations. This is particularly evident regarding the efforts made to contain and prevent regional conflicts with potential spillover effects.

“At this point, it is important to strengthen multilateralism with the aim of meeting the new challenges and to put in place a new order based on justice and equality. The pursuit of such an approach is not merely an option and seems to be necessary given the serious challenges facing the international community, namely the continued threats to international peace and security, the necessity to enhance solidarity among members of the international community and the achievement of economic prosperity and sustainable development.”

Multilateralism: “The UN is based on the principles of cooperation and neighborly relations, with regional integration and cooperation representing the best means to ensure stability, economic development and an improved common future.”

Mozambique
H.E. Mr. Armando Emílio Guebuza, President
24 September 2008

Multilateralism: “In this regard, the reform process should continue so that the United Nations can achieve greater unity and ability to provide an appropriate response to the challenges that are imposed to us by the need of reinforcing the multilateralism and the promotion of partnerships for peace, security and development across the world.”

Myanmar
H. E. M. U Nyan Win, Minister for Foreign Affairs
29 September 2008


Multilateralism: “The daunting challenges of the 21st century could only be addressed through international cooperation. We can only solve the international problems of economic, social, cultural or humanitarian character by working together. To do this, powerful countries should refrain from practicing hegemonic policies either through political or economic pressures.

“In the global village that we live, mutual respect, understanding and tolerance must be the values that we espouse. As we face environmental issues including the climate change that wrought great devastation to peoples in various regions around the world; we need a united response to overcome them. Let us work together to give our global village a peaceful and prosperous future.”

Namibia
H.E. Mr. Hifikepunye Pohamba, President
23 September 2008

Multilateralism, peace, and security: “The 63rd Session of General Assembly is taking place at a time when the global economy is dominated by four interrelated crises... [including] the need to foster peace and security around the world. We must act decisively and collectively at national, regional and global levels to overcome these challenges... It is our duty to ensure that the United Nations remains true to its unique universal character and that it becomes a source of hope for a more secure and peaceful world for the current and future generations.”

Nauru
H.E. Mr Marcus Stephen, President
24 September 2008

Militarism: “The United States military expansion in Guam provides another opportunity for significant development assistance to the Pacific.”

Peace and security: “The issue of climate change for Pacific Island nations is a threat to international peace and security.”

Multilateralism, peace, and war: “Sixty three years after the United Nations was founded on the noble ideals of establishing a peaceful, free, and tolerant global order, the world community still suffers from the scourges of war, poverty, oppression, and discrimination together with facing the today’s colossal global challenges that threaten our very existence.

“If the United Nations is to remain devoted to the ideals upon which it was founded it is absolutely critical that it is reformed through the revitalization and empowerment of the General Assembly.

“If the United Nations is to remain a defender of human rights and international peace, it is crucial that the Security Council be expanded to better reflect geo-political realities of the modern world.”

Nepal
H.E. Mr. Pushpa Kamal Dahal ‘Prachanda’, Prime minister
26 September 2008

Peace: “Nepal's peace process is unique in its characteristics and is based on multiparty democracy, inclusiveness, accommodation, dialogue, and the recognition of the people as the ultimate arbiter. It is the outcome of our own creative disposition towards peace and we feel that it can also serve as a reference model for peace elsewhere.”

Terrorism, nuclear weapons, WMD: “The United Nations agenda today has to tackle these development challenges and many other issues such as religious extremism and terrorism, proliferation of nuclear weapons and weapons of mass destruction, transnational crimes such as drugs, human trafficking and money-laundering, continuing conflicts within and among states, and gross violations of human rights, genocide, war crimes and crimes against humanity.”

Multilateralism: “It is more than obvious that many of these global problems require global solutions. Together we can rise to the occasion and adopt a vision and strategy that the founders of the United Nations Organization charted in the purposes and principles of the Charter of the Organization. Multilateralism, not unilateralism is the answer to these problems.”

Disarmament: “I am pleased that the UN Regional Center for Peace Disarmament in Asia and the Pacific has been now operational from Kathmandu twenty year after it was established by this august Assembly. I thank all the members, countries from the region and the Secretary General and the officials of the Secretariat for the smooth relocation of the Centre from New York to Kathmandu.”

Peace: “Enjoyment of universal human rights is absolutely essential in creating the environment of peace, justice, democracy and development.”

Netherlands
H.E. Mr. Jan Peter Balkenende, Prime Minister and Minister for General Affairs
25 September 2008

Multilateralism: “Global challenges require global solutions. Global solutions require global action. Every one of us needs to ask ourselves: what am I doing to make freedom a reality for people at home and elsewhere? The international community will support all those who fight against hunger, want and disease. But we must do so as efficiently as possible. We must not waste resources: the need is too great. Above all, we must work together.

Multilateralism: “The number of armed conflicts is also declining, however serious the situation remains in certain troubled regions. Progress is possible. But it doesn't happen by itself. For the Netherlands, this is an incentive to continue working, heart and soul, -for 'a world in which human beings shall enjoy freedom of speech and belief, and freedom from fear and want'. In conclusion, let me echo President Roosevelt's words: 'The world order which we seek is the cooperation of free countries, working together in a friendly, civilised society.'”

New Zealand
H.E. Ms. Rosemary Banks, Chairperson of the Delegation
29 September 2008

Multilateralism: “More than ever before, we are an interconnected and interdependent world community. The Charter goals of peace and prosperity require the full support of all United Nations members.”

Nicaragua
H.E. Mr. Samuel Santos Lopez, Minister for Foreign Affairs
26 September 2008

Waiting translation.

Niger
H.E. Ms. Aïchatou Mindaoudou, Minister for Foreign Affairs
27 September 2008

Waiting translation.

Nigeria
H.E. Mr. Umaru Musa Yar’adua, President
29 September 2008

Small arms and light weapons: “It is against this background that we raise before this assembly, the concern of many developing countries, especially in Africa, suffering from the devastating consequences of the illicit trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons. Most of the civil wars and insurgencies in these countries have been prosecuted with these weapons. And because of their lethality and ready deployment, they may be described as Africa’s experience of weapon of mass destruction.

“We remain convinced that the best and most effective strategy for achieving the goal of preventing, combating and eradicating this illicit and deadly trade is through the elaboration of a legally-binding global instrument, as well as the political will on the part of all, to stem the uncontrolled proliferation of Small Arms. There is need, therefore, for urgent action to criminalize oil bunkering, the sale of oil so acquired and the use of its proceeds to fuel new crisis situations in Africa, particularly in the Gulf of Guinea, through the proliferation of small arms and light weapons. The same creativity and political will that was demonstrated in confronting ‘blood diamonds’ as a source of regional instability must be available this time in dealing with ‘blood oil’ that now threatens the Gulf.”

Small arms and light weapons: “We call on the international community, to take bold and robust steps that would lead to the full deployment and operationalization of the AD-UN hybrid peacekeeping force. In the same vein, we call on the Government of Sudan to take steps that will facilitate the attainment of this objective ... [including] a global commitment towards stemming the flow of small arms and light weapons into Africa.”

Terrorism: “Nigeria condemns terrorism in all its forms and manifestations. We reaffirm our support for the counter terrorism measures of the Security Council and the UN Global Counter Terrorism Strategy. We have also been implementing the four pillars of the Global Strategy through measures that have proven effective in combating terrorism. For us, the fight against terrorism is strongly anchored on the rule of law and respect for human rights. It is important that, as we combat this scourge, fundamental freedoms and human rights are neither compromised nor abused.”

Norway
H.E. Mr. Jens Stoltenberg, Prime Minister
25 September 2008

Multilateralism: “All countries, all member states share the responsibility for the functioning of the United Nations as a decisionmaking body, that serves us, which is for people. That solves global problems. And allows all people to benefit from the rights with which they were born. And which are written in the Declaration on Human Rights.”

Oman
H.E. Mr. Sayyid Badr Bin Hamad Al Busaidi, Secretary-General of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs
27 September 2008

Waiting translation.

Pakistan
H.E. Mr. Asif Ali Zardari, President
25 September 2008

Terrorism: “The roots of today’s terrorism can be traced to a war involving the world’s superpowers in Afghanistan during the 1980s. Afghanistan and Pakistan, and increasingly the world, are reaping the bitter harvest sowed towards the end of the cold war.

“We may be the targets of international terrorism, but we will never succumb to it. Toward that end, we reach out to you and to the entire civilized world. Terrorism cannot be fought by military means alone. Fighting it requires political will, popular mobilization, and a socio economic strategy that wins the hearts and minds of nations afflicted by it.

“Unilateral actions of great powers should not inflame the passions of allies. Violating our nation’s sovereignty is not helpful in eliminating the terrorist menace. Indeed, this could have the opposite effect. Many of you in this great hall read about terror. We live with it. We do not learn about terror from reading newspapers or watching the evening news. We see our children and our wives being blown up before us. My cities, neighborhoods, streets, hotels and offices bear the brunt of the terrorist fanatic rage every single day. A democratic Pakistan is in the process of reaching the national consensus necessary to confront and defeat the terrorists. Only a democratic government can win this war. We are fighting the menace and we will continue to fight. But this is the fight for the peace of the world. This is the fight for the future of generations to come. Yes, we fight for ourselves, for our children, for our very soul. Yes, this is our war, but we need international support—moral, political and economic. In our stability lies the world’s security. Globalization is not just economic; it is also political. The terrorist vision strikes out at all continents and all nations. We must draw the line on their rampage. And we must draw that line in Pakistan.”

Terrorism: “Today, the horror of terrorism that plagues our region and threatens the world is a by-product of this lack of commitment to the values of democracy. When the world betrays democracy, it sets the table for disaster. We all continue to pay the price. In the early years of the new millennium, there are two great battles before mankind. First there is the battle for democracy and liberty against authoritarians and dictators—the fight for universal human rights that is the hallmark of this body. At the same time, we are fighting in the trenches of the battle that will determine the course of the new millennium—the battle against extremism and terrorism—between the forces of ignorance and the forces of education, between bigotry and tolerance, between justice and discrimination, between confrontation and reconciliation.”

Terrorism: “We are not the cause of the problem of terrorism, we are its victims. We are an aggrieved nation NOT one that has caused grief. We have fought this battle largely alone. We have shared our air bases, our air space, our intelligence, and our armed forces in a coordinated effort to contain terrorism. Ladies and gentlemen, It is time for the developed world to step up to the plate to help us, and in turn help itself. The fight against extremism is a fight for the hearts and minds of people. It can’t be won only by guns and bombs. The fight must be multifaceted. The battleground must be economic and social as well as military. We will win when people are mobilized against the fanatics. To mobilize them we have to give them hope and opportunity for their future. They need jobs. Their children need education. They must be fed. They must have energy. We must give people a stake in their own government, and we must demonstrate to them that democracy does perform, that democratic governance can improve their everyday life. An economically viable Pakistan will be a stable Pakistan. And a stable Pakistan will suck the oxygen from the terrorists’ agenda. Economic justice and political democracy are the worst nightmares of the terrorists. We must all fight this epic battle together as allies and partners. But just as we will not let Pakistan’s territory to be used by terrorists for attacks against our people and our neighbors, we cannot allow our territory and our sovereignty to be violated by our friends. Attacks within Pakistan that violate our sovereignty actually serve to empower the forces against which we fight together.”

Palau
H.E. Mr. Elias Camsek Chin, Vice President
25 September 2008

Terrorism: “Palau is an active participant in the efforts of the international community to combat terrorism and has made every effort to improve its anti-terrorism capacity. We have met with the Counter Terrorism Executive Directorate to advance our requests for assistance, particularly in the area of combating money laundering and terrorism financing. Unfortunately, the efforts of the Directorate have been insufficient. Out experience has been that the capacity building efforts of the United Nations have focused on helping countries draft and adopt legislation. That is an excellent first step, but an insufficient one as the best-designed legislation is meaningless without enforcement. We hope that during the 63rd session of the General Assembly, the United Nations will take the next step and help smaller countries, which have the drive but not the means, to operationalize the laws and regulations these countries have in place to fight terrorism. We urge the establishment of a voluntary trust fund that would allow small states to develop effective counter-terrorism initiatives. We thank the United States and Australia for the counter terrorism assistance they have given us.”

Palestine
H.E. Mr. Mahmoud Abbas, Chairman of the Executive Committee of the Palestinian Liberation Organization and President of the Palestinian Authority
26 September 2008

WMD Zone in the Middle East: “For the purpose of these noble objectives, namely the building of a new Middle East free of destructive mind-sets and irrational tendencies that are contrary to the highest human values preached by all religions and creeds, a new Middle East free of weapons of mass destruction.”

Panama
H.E. Mr. Martín Torrijos, President
23 September 2008
Unofficial translation by WILPF staff.

Multilateralism: “This organisation was founded at the end of a world conflagration to banish war forever from the world and to prevent armed confrontations between nations or groups of nations. Although all of such events have not been able to be avoided, certainly it has constituted a deterrent, which has prevented wars which might have proved even more devastating.”

Peace: “The United Nations has as its major principle the preservation of peace, but peace is not just the absence of armed conflict between countries. Peace also needs the tranquility of nations and entails the elimination of adverse factors that can cause disruptions.”

Papua New Guinea
H.E. The Honourable Puka Temu, Deputy Prime Minister
27 September 2008

Multilateralism and terrorism: “The UN currently provides the global forum for member states to address the many global issues we face together…. We must also be vigilant against terrorism and threats to international peace and security.”

Small arms and light weapons: “We live in a world that provides us many opportunities, as well as formidable development challenges. The challenges include addressing the destructive effects from the illicit use of small arms and lights weapons, the need to address globalization, and food and energy security which lead into the wider issue of human security.”

Paraguay
H.E. Mr. Fernando Lugo Méndez, President
24 September 2008

Waiting translation.

Peru
H.E. Mr. José Antonio Garcia Belaunde, Minister for Foreign Affairs
27 September 2008

Waiting translation.

Philippines
H.E. Ms. Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo, President
23 September 2008

Peace: “There is no alternative to peace.”

Disarmament: “The context of our agreements with all armed groups shall subscribe to the UN-recognized principle of demobilization, disarmament and reintegration.”

Poland
H.E. Mr Lech Kaczynski, President
24 September 2008

Multilateralism: “One of the fundamental principles governing the democratic management within the United Nations is expressed in the following words: ‘one state one vote’. Each state should be granted the possibility to decide in which direction the United Nations will be heading. The General Assembly still remains the most important forum for holding such democratic debate. In this context, facilitation of the decision making mechanism takes on pivotal importance. We advocate a quicker pace of works on the reform of the Security Council. The number of non-permanent members of the Council should be increased so as to reflect the true image of today’s world.”

Multilateralism: “The issues mentioned above cannot be solved by a single state or a group of states. Today we clearly see that we need a joint action by all countries: poor and rich, Eastern and Western, Northern and Southern. In order to live up to the challenges facing the world today, we should act jointly in the spirit of solidarity, and via effectively operating international structures such as the United Nation, to achieve best results. What is essential however, is guaranteeing respect for core principles of international law, human rights and fundamental freedoms.”

Terrorism and security: “Poland’s involvement in international security is visible through our participation in an anti-terrorist coalition in numerous volatile regions of the world. Currently more than 3500 Polish troops and police officers are stationed as a part of global peacekeeping and stabilization forces – from Africa, through the Balkans, through the Middle East and Asia. Iraq was one of such places. Through its 5-year long presence in Iraq, Poland has made efforts to help our Iraqi friends and allies to ensure external and internal security.”

Portugal
H.E. Mr. Aníbal António Cavaco Silva, President
24 September 2008

Multilateralism: “Global challenges imply a collective responsibility. The United Nations are the forum that best embodies that collective responsibility.”

Multilateralism: “In a globalised and interdependent world, only strong multilateral institutions can promote the fundamental values of peace, democracy, human rights and sustainable development. Portugal is committed to supporting effective multilateralism, based on cohesive and efficient United Nations.”

Peace: “Peace, sustainable development, access to education and health and the integration of the African economies in the international markets are essential objectives to build a more just, more peaceful and more balanced international order.”

Terrorism: “Seven years have passed since this city suffered one of the most infamous acts the world has witnessed in our time. Although much has been done since then, terrorism continues to be a threat. The implementation of the Global Strategy is fundamental for the success in combating the ‘common enemy.’

“In this regard, respect for human rights and for the fundamental freedom is crucial and their promotion contributes to preventing terrorism.”

Qatar
His Highness Sheikh Hamad bin Khalifa Al-Thani, Amir
23 September 2008

Peace: “I need not remind anyone in this august chamber which gathers an audience of such a high level, that the goal of this organization and the purpose of its Charter are primarily to achieve and maintain world peace.

“The human experience that is full of hopes and horrors reminds us all that achieving world peace is a conscious positive act and not just wishful thinking. We have tried to look for peace through war in which the powerful impose their will as in the two world wars in the twentieth century.

“We have also tried to look for peace through agreement between empires as between Britain and France in 1904. We have tried to look for peace through coexistance between the United States and the Soviet Union in 1971. In all those attempts, by war or agreement between powers, by agreement between empires, or by coexistence between blocs and doctrines, peace has remained elusive.

“We have all recognized through these long and exhausting experiences that achieving peace is a positive act that means more than just eliminating the threat of arms. While it is true that humanity has not known a global war in the last sixty years, it is also true that peace in those last sixty years has remained elusive for it was a peace marred by conflicts on all continents and in all territories. We have also come to the conclusion that in a world where barriers of distances and time have vanished, achieving peace requires establishing and promoting economic and social justice among peoples, and this is what constitutes positive peace.

“If the principles of the Charter have established the political rights of nations on the basis of international law, the right of their peoples to social justice must be based on the idea of development. In the past, the first generation of advocates and proponents of the movements of national liberation demanded for what they called “positive neutrality” thinking that they could thus distance themselves from the wars of the of the super powers. In fact, the realities of today’s world require a different approach, for peace cannot be achieved through conflict between powers, agreement between empires, or coexistence among blocs, and not even through positive neutrality.

“The alternative to those three options is our choice, namely positive peace, the era of international law that ensures political rights, and the era of development that provides parallel and equal opportunities to one world that cannot head into the future hindered by the injustices of politics or blinded by the darkness of underdevelopment.

“Qatar is getting ready for the Follow-up International Conference on Financing for Development. My country looks forward to an international cooperation that offers the broadest base possible for political as well as social peace. We hope that participation in the conference will be at the highest possible level, for the goal is ambitious and the purpose is vital for the safety and peace of the one human global village.”

Republic of Korea
H.E. Mr. Han Seung-soo, Prime Minister
25 September 2008

Terrorism: “On September 12, 2001, this assembly began its 56th Session by adopting a resolution strongly condemning the terrorist acts and calling on the international community’s concerted effort to combat terrorism. With the close cooperation that has followed, counter-terrorist capacity has been strengthened at all levels. Nevertheless, as we are witnessing in many parts of the world today, terrorism continues to threaten and cost the lives of innocent people. As the international community shares the concern over such an intractable trend, it is time for us to renew our commitment to completely root out terrorism in all its forms and manifestations.”

WMD, delivery systems, disarmament, non-proliferation: “The proliferation of WMDs and their delivery systems pose a grave threat to international peace and security. We must strengthen the disarmament and non-proliferation regimes, including the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT).”

North Korean nuclear programme: “It is crucial that the North Korean nuclear issue be expeditiously resolved. This issue has remained for many years as a threat to the security of Northeast Asia while seriously undermining the very foundations of the NPT regime.

The Republic of Korea is making every effort to resolve the North Korean nuclear issue within the framework of the Six-Party Talks, under which some progress has been made. However, Pyonyong’s recent move to suspend the disablement measures and attempt to reverse the process is highly regrettable. We urge the DPRK to resume disablement measures immediately so that the positive momentum generated by the Six-Party Talks process can be maintained and the denuclearization process can move forward.”

North Korean nuclear programme: “With the peaceful resolution of the North Korean nuclear issue, countries in the region will be able to accelerate cooperation to make Northeast Asia more stable and future-oriented. Undoubtedly, this will in turn contribute greatly to the peace and prosperity of the world.”

Romania
H.E. Mr. Lazar Comanescu, Minister for Foreign Affairs
27 September 2008

Peace and security: “Full observance of all principles and norms of international law, territorial integrity of States included, is a must for all of us if we want peace, security, stability and prosperity to prevail.”

Disarmament, non-proliferation, terrorism, WMD, conventional weapons, multilateralism: “Responsibility and solidarity are also basic pillars of the international norms in disarmament, non-proliferation and the fight against terrorism, be they traditional treaties – such as the Nuclear Proliferation Treaty (NPT), or newly established mechanisms like the Resolution 1540 (2004). First, an essential obligation of each state is the responsibility towards the effective and comprehensive implementation of its commitments by promoting the necessary legal framework as well as establishing appropriate mechanisms for verification and control. Romania has enacted and continues to strengthen several specific laws in order to translate into internal regulations the prohibitions against the development, acquisition, transfer and use of nuclear, biological, chemical (Weapons of Mass Destruction/WMD), radiological weapons, and the restrictions on conventional armaments. Second, there is a need for solidarity and cooperation at regional and multilateral levels, so that national measures and actions are recognized and implemented. Romania has always shown interest and availability to work together with all members of the international community in this respect. The most recent proof is the contribution of my country to the Seven Nations Initiative for nuclear disarmament and non-proliferation, launched by Norway in 2005. Concrete exampled of our involvement are the international seminar on “How can the Black Sea Region Contribute to Improved Global Security,” hosted by Bucharest in 2007, as well as other activities aimed at promoting the objectives of this cross-regional initiative.”

Russian Federation
H.E. M. Sergey V. Lavrov, Minister for Foreign Affairs
27 September 2008

Terrorism and multilateralism: “On 11 September 2001 the world had changed and rallied together in the combat against the threat of terror that was common for all and had no boundaries. The world displayed an unprecedented solidarity by rejecting old phobia and stereotypes. It seemed that the global antiterrorist coalition became a new reality that from now on would define the development of international relations free from double standards and beneficial for all.

“The cohesion in the face of deadly threats coming from Al Qaeda and other elements of ‘terrorist international’ made it possible to achieve tangible success at the first stage. But later, problems began to grow.

“A painful blow to the unity of the antiterrorist coalition was delivered by the war in Iraq when—as it turned out—under false pretext of fight on terror and nuclear arms proliferation the international law was violated. Artificially, the deepest crisis was created, and it is far from being resolved up until now.

“More and more questions are being raised as to what is going on in Afghanistan. First of all, what is the acceptable price for losses among civilians in the ongoing counter-terror operation? Who decides on criteria of proportionality of the use of force? And why the international contingents are unwilling to engage in the combat against proliferating drug threat that causes ever increasing suffering to the countries of Central Asia and Europe?

“These and other factors give reason to believe that the anti-terror coalition is in the face of crisis. Looking at the core of the problem, this coalition seems to lack collective arrangements—i.e. equality among all its members in deciding on the strategy, operational tactics. It so happened that in order to control a totally new situation as it evolved after 9/11, instead of required genuine cooperative effort, including joint analysis and coordination of practical steps, the mechanisms intended for a unipolar world started to be used, meaning that all decisions were to be taken in a single center while the rest just had to follow.

“The solidarity of the international community fostered on the wave of struggle against terrorism turned out to be somehow ‘privatized’.”

Outer Space, missile defense, and militarism: “The inertia of unipolar world ideology also revealed itself in other spheres of international life, including unilateral steps on AMD [anti-missile defense] and militarization of outer space, attempts to bypass the parity in arms control regimes, enlargements of politico-military blocs, and politicization of the issues of access to energy resources and their transit.”

Terrorism and multilateralism: “It has become crystal clear that the solidarity expressed by all of us after 9/11 should be revived through the concepts cleared of geopolitical expediency and built on the rejection of double standards when we fight against any infringements upon the international law—be it on the part of terrorists, belligerent political extremists or any others. The crisis in the Caucasus proved again that it is impossible or even disastrous to try to resolve the existing problems in the blind folds of the unipolar world. The price we have to pay in lives and destiny of people is too high.”

Multilateralism and security: “We should take a comprehensive look at security problems. Preside D.A. Medvedev, speaking in Berlin on 5 June, proposed to develop a Treaty on European Security, a kind of ‘Helsinki-2’. This work could be started at a Pan-European summit with the participation of states as well as organizations working in this region.

The Treaty is meant to create a reliable collective system that would ensure equal security for all states, and, record in a legally binding form the basics of relations between its participants with a view to strengthening peace and ensuring stability, and finally—promoting an integrated and manageable development across the vast Euro-Atlantic region. It is a process involving all participants who would reaffirm their commitment to fundamental principles of the international law, such as the non-use of force and peaceful settlements of disputes, sovereignty, territorial integrity and non-interference in the internal affairs, and inadmissibility of strengthening one’s own security by infringing upon the security of others. We also need to conceive together the mechanisms to ensure compliance with these fundamental principles. Naturally, such a Treaty should organically fit into the legal framework of the UN Charter and its principles of collective security.”

Multilateralism: “Only now, after the Cold War is over, the United Nations, created on the basis of polycentric vision of the world, can fully realize its potential. As never before, it is now important that all States reaffirm their commitment to the United Nations as a non-alternative world forum with a universal mandate and generally recognized legitimacy, as a center for open and frank debate and coordination of the world policies on a just and equitable basis free from double standards. This is an essential requirement, if the world is to regain its equilibrium.”

Russia also discussed the recent conflict in South Ossetia and Abkhazia.

Rwanda
H.E. Mr. Paul Kagame, President
23 September 2008

Peace and security: “Rwanda is committed to regional and global peace and stability. Let us not forget that the process of comprehensively resolving the issue of those who committed genocide in Rwanda has yet to be accomplished. We stand ready to play our part in addressing this matter – in the context of broader objectives for consolidating stability and peace on our continent. Once again, I assure you of our determination and commitment to creating a safer and better world.”