UNGA Disarmament Index 2008: S–Z

This is an index of all references made to issues of disarmament, peace, and security, made in the 63rd General Debate of the United Nations General Assembly from 23–29 September 2008. Included in this index are all references made to arms control, disarmament, multilateralism, nuclear energy, security, proliferation, the arms trade, and nuclear and conventional weapons.

A–G | H–R | S–Z

Saint Kitts and Nevis | Saint Lucia  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines | Samoa |San Marino | Sao Tome and Principe | Saudi Arabia | Senegal | Serbia | Seychelles | Sierra Leone | Singapore | Slovakia | Slovenia | Soloman Islands | Somalia | South Africa | South Sudan | Spain | Sri Lanka | Sudan | Suriname | Swaziland | Sweden| Switzerland | Syria
Tajikistan | Tanzania | Thailand | Timor Leste | Togo | Trinidad and Tobago | Tunisia | Turkey | Turkmenistan | Tuvalu
Uganda | Ukraine | United Arab Emirates | United Kingdom | United States | Uruguay | Uzbekistan
Vanuatu | Venezuela | Viet Nam | Yemen | Zambia | Zimbabwe

Saint Kitts and Nevis
H.E. Dr. Denzil L. Douglas, Prime Minister and Minister of Foreign Affairs Minister of National Security & Immigration, Minister of Sustainable Development and Minister of Tourism, Sports and Culture
25 September 2008

No relevant references.

Saint Lucia
H.E. Mr. Stephenson King, Prime Minister and Minister of Finance, International Financial Services, Economic Affairs, National Development and External Affairs
26 September 2008

Small arms and light weapons: “Mr. President, Saint Lucia is seriously concerned about the proliferation of small arms in our part of the world. The presence of small arms in our region poses serious challenges for the security and stability of our societies. As we struggle to address this problem within our limited resources, we call on those states that are engaged in the production and trade of small arms and ammunition to enact appropriate measures to curb the illicit trade which threatens the stability and security of our societies.”

Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
H.E. Mr. Ralph E. Gonsalves, Prime Minister
26 September 2008

Multilateralism: “In all candor, I must reaffirm what you have already concluded: That the United Nations, as the supreme multilateral institution of a profoundly troubled and iniquitous world, can and must do more, in the form of decisive action, to improve the condition of our planet, the living conditions of the less fortunate, and the safety of our global family.”

Multilateralism: “The work that we have entrusted to the United Nations is compromised by apathy and inaction by too many of us, and the crippling pursuit of narrow selfinterest by a handful of powerful countries. We have, in this session, an historic opportunity to reassert the relevance and credibility of this body by keeping the promises that we have made to ourselves and the world.

“The United Nations is charged with tackling the weighty problems that beset the world, not with the refinement of the art of impotent diplomacy. I have no doubt that the principles concealed in the language of “mandate review,” “system wide coherence” and “revitalisation” are important, and doubly so to the professional diplomats who look inward rather than outward, and who lose sight of the forest for the trees, in their endless quest to choreograph the dancing of ever more angels on the head of a pin. But bureaucratese will neither excite nor engage the poor and marginalised people that we have created this body to serve. When our signature achievements and emphases are esoterically bureaucratic, it speaks to a broader failing of the United Nations to achieve the noble goals of its overarching mandate, as spelt out so compellingly in the preamble of its Charter.”

Small arms and light weapons and disarmament: “The geographic happenstance that has placed the innocent people of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines in the path of increasingly intense storms has also located us unfortunately between the supply and demand that fuels much of the West’s narcotics trade. As a result, our scarce resources are increasingly being diverted to stem the tide of drugs and small arms flowing through our region. To the people of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, disarmament does not mean the eradication of nuclear weapons, which we lack the will and resources to build, but the elimination of small arms, which threaten to shoot holes in the fabric of our democracy and compromise the values of our civilisation. We are assailed by guns, which we do not build; and by deadly narcotics such as cocaine, which we do not produce. The United Nations must act to protect the innocent victims of the world from the scourge of small arms and light weapons.”

Multilateralism and militarism: “Mr. President, in recent months, I have been profoundly troubled by the creeping return of cold war rhetoric to the language of international and hemispheric discourse. In this globalised and interconnected world, it is no longer possible to divide the world in competing hemispheres, or to completely quarantine ideological friend from foe. We must guard against the return of discarded philosophies and learn from the recent past, in which developing countries were used as pawns and proxies for the hegemonic ambitions of others. Our multipolar experiment is too young for the developing and globalizing world to return to the old rhetoric and recriminations that invariably blossom into violence and death, most often visited on the peoples of developing countries. It is my sincere prayer that this august body hews closely to the principles of multilateralism and sovereign equality of all states, and resists any pressures for the United Nations to devolve into a playground for the triumphalist ambitions of presumptive superpowers.”

H.E. The Honourable Tuila’epa Lupesoliai Sailele Malielegaoi, Prime Minister, Minister for Foreign Affairs and Minister for Finance
26 September 2008

Multilateralism: “The United Nations personifies multilateralism. It is a living testimony of the inter-governmental process at work.”

Multilateralism and terrorism: “Finally, those bent on creating fear and panic throughout the world will stop at nothing to achieve their aims. We must not be held hostage to their devious designs. Individually and collectively we must step up our efforts to combat the threat of international terrorism in its many manifestations. No country can succeed on its own. Only by working collaboratively can we be successful.”

San Marino
H.E. Mr. Fiorenzo Stolfi, Minister of Foreign and Political Affairs and Economic Planning with functions of Prime Minister
26 September 2008

War: “The United Nation’s role is of even greater necessity given present international conditions, marked by war between and inside nations. In fact as the 21st century begins, we are witnessing a series of new conflicts even more driven by economic interests – clashes of civilizations, both ethical and religious, that often occur within the same country.”

Peace: “The negative consequences of climate change represent a greater obstacle to achieve the Millennium Development Goals, and are a threat to international peace and the causes of the most severe humanitarian emergencies.”

Peace: “The Republic of San Marino has always been committed to the promotion of the principles of peaceful coexistence and the mutual respect between individuals and peoples, in the knowledge that understanding and mutual respect are prerequisites to peace and justice. The promotion of intercultural dialogue is a concrete tool for reaching these values and for affirming one of the United Nations’ guiding principles: peace founded on justice and international cooperation.”

Sao Tome and Principe
H.E. Mr. Fradique Bandeira Melo de Menezes, President
25 September 2008

No relevant references.

Saudi Arabia
Did not speak at the general debate.

H.E. Mr. Abdoulaye Wade, President
24 September 2008

Waiting translation.

H.E. Mr. Boris Tadic, President
23 September 2008

Multilateralism: “However much the world has changed since 1945, the United Nations remains the only universal, intergovernmental institution that unites us as a global community of sovereign states.”

Multilateralism: “...my country remains ready to further promote a nobler form of intergovernmental cooperation—one that truly addresses challenges, alleviates divisions, and reduces tensions. Such a vision can only be built on the firm foundation of the universal principles of sovereign equality, solidarity and international law within the framework of the United Nations.”

H.E. Mr. James Alix Michel, President
25 September 2008

No relevant references.

Sierra Leone
H.E. Mr. Ernest Bai Koroma, President
25 September 2008

Multilateralism and peace: “The sacred duty of this Organization 'to save succeeding generations from the scourge of war' was tested in fire in Sierra Leone. But today Sierra Leone demonstrates what the United Nations can achieve when its Member States work closely together. The people of Sierra Leone know the value and relevance of the United Nations, and appreciate its continuing support as we reconstruct our society from war to peace, and work with determination to build a better future.”

Multilateralism: “The need to democratize and reform the Organization is of vital importance. However, reform is not an end in itself but a means to an end. We support a strong and effective United Nations that can meet the everincreasing and complex array of challenges in the 21 st century. We are convinced that a more representative and effective United Nations will strengthen the loyalty and commitment of Member States, and make the Organization more responsive to the needs of our time.”

Multilateralism, peace, and security: “The United Nations has been an important force for global peace, development, and justice. Sierra Leone’s peace and stability are due largely to United Nations peace keeping, a visible and an important aspect of the Organization’s work. The Peace Building Commission, the Peacebuilding Fund, and other United Nations agencies are helping us in critical ways to achieve our development priorities and to meet the challenges of postconflict reconstruction.”

Peace: “Without reconciliation, tolerance and the rule of law there can be no true and lasting peace.”

Peace, war, and security: “But we are the first to acknowledge that much more needs to be done to achieve sustainable peace and development. War and deadly conflicts have social and economic consequences long after the fighting has ended. A peaceful country requires more than the absence of war. Development remains the foremost need of Sierra Leoneans. Moreover, it is the foundation of security and it makes political rights meaningful. You can only be secure if you have food, shelter, clean water, and protection from disease. That is why the monumental task of poverty eradication is one of the national priorities of my Government.”

Peace and multilateralism: “The mission of the United Nations is more important than ever: to serve the cause of peace, to advance development, and to protect the human rights of all. The United Nations is a unique Forum where the weak and the strong, the poor and the prosperous can have their voices heard. Sierra Leone reaffirms its commitment to the ideals and principles of the United Nations, and will continue to be a constructive member of the Organization.”

H.E. M. George Yeo, Minister for Foreign Affairs
29 September 2008

Multilateralism: “Who takes responsibility for the global system? While on paper the WTO with 153 members makes decisions by consensus, the reality is that a small group of countries has to take the lead to keep the multilateral trading system moving in the right direction. On no major issue confronting the human family can decisions be taken without the major countries taking the lead. The challenge of climate change, for example, cannot be tackled without the major emitters coining to some broad agreement on the way forward. If the Doha round despite being a positive sum game is so difficult to conclude; it is hard to be optimistic that a UN agreement on climate change can be negotiated quickly without the exercise of strong leadership by the US, Europe; Russia, China, India, Japan and Brazil, If they could not; or would not, exercise such leadership for global trade, can we expect them to do so for climate change?

“The emerging multipolar reality of the 21 century is a fact that we have to face squarely. International institutions like the UN can only function well when we accept this reality and work with it. As a small country, Singapore accepts that while every country, big or small, has one vote each, we do not all carry the same weight. Small countries need the UN and other International institutions to protect our interests and we therefore have every interest in making sure that these institutions are effective. They can only work well if the multipolar reality is taken into account. The Forum of Small States which is an informal grouping of more than half the UN’s membership takes a realistic view of global politics because this is the only way to secure our own interests. For this century to be a peaceful one, it is crucial for all countries, big and small, to adhere to the UN Charter and the international rule of law.

“However, the realpolitik of big power rivalry cannot be wished away for that indeed has been the human condition for most of history. But we can confine that rivalry and; by a combination of pressures, prevent any power from pushing its claim excessively. In this, international institutions like the UN play a civilizing role. International institutions cannot stop big power rivalry but can channel it, and ensure that the common interests of the human family are not completely disregarded. For this reason, the smaller countries have a strong vested interest in seeing international institutions strengthened. The reform of the UN taking into account the changes in the world since the end of the Second World War is an absolute necessity.”Multilateralism: “With globalisation, there has been a mushrooming of regional institutions around the world. Some have come 10 play useful roles in fostering regional peace and development. The UN and other international institutions can multiply their effectiveness by working closely with such regional institutions.”

Peace: “For development to take place, there must be peace. Without continuing peace in Asia, we will not be able to realize the promise of this century.”

Multilateralism: “We cannot stop rivalry among the big powers but we can limit the harm that rivalry does to smaller countries. In fact, smaller countries can turn the emerging multipolarity to advantage if we combine our strengths in regional and international institutions. Among these the most important is of course the UN.

“We still need global leadership but it has to be by a new concert of big powers going beyond the US; Europe and Japan. It has to be a new kind of leadership exercised in a transparent way through both hard and soft power, and preferably through regional and international institutions. Writing about the Beijing Olympics in the Wall Street Journal. Tony Blair recently said: ‘The truth is that nothing in the 21st century will work well without China's full engagement.’ The same can be said of Russia, India and Brazil. While the US will long remain dominant, a more inclusive global arrangement will make this a better and safer world for all of us.”

H.E Mr. Ján Kubis, Minister for Foreign Affairs
26 September 2008

Multilateralism: “The international community is increasingly confronted with old problems coupled with a new set of challenges of a truly global nature. And, as the UN SG Ban Ki-moon said at the opening session, under these circumstances we face another daunting challenge—a challenge of global leadership. We, the United Nations of the world, must indeed exercise our leadership, authority and responsibility under these increasingly complex circumstances, first of all here, at the United Nations, notably in the SC, but also the General Assembly, ECOSOC and other bodies. Cooperation among our countries and with international organizations must broaden. Real partnerships with private sector and civil society must be pursued more vigorously.”

Security: “Also, the notion of human security is a particularly promising concept within the United Nations to further advance the nexus among the three pillars of UN’s work: security, development and human rights.”

Peace and security: “Justice is a prerequisite for peace, security and development, not in contradiction with them.”

Militarism: “The world is unfortunately full of disputes, conflicts and crises. We consistently support their solution by negotiations and peaceful means with a central role of the UN, based on full respect for the principles of international law, notably those of sovereignty and territorial integrity and reject use of force and unilateral action.”

Terrorism: “Slovakia supports enhanced UN cooperation in implementing the UN Global Counter- Terrorism Strategy. To be more effective, we need an agreement on the UN Comprehensive Convention against International Terrorism (CCIT) as soon as possible.”

WMD, means of delivery: “The proliferation of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) and their means of delivery continues to pose a serious threat to international peace and security.”

Iran’s nuclear programme: “We are in particular concerned about our inability to close the issue of the Iran nuclear program in a way that would be considered by all to be in conformity with non-proliferation regime.”

WMD: “We welcome the extension of the mandate of the Security Council Committee established pursuant to resolution 1540. Cooperation with regional, sub-regional, other international organizations and functional bodies, as well as among various relevant UN organs remains essential to further facilitate implementation of resolution 1540 by member States.”

Multilateralism: “As has been stated by many distinguished speakers before me, the tasks confronting us in the year ahead are enormous. They can be accomplished only through our strong and sustained political commitment, working through multilateral mechanisms, with the UN at the centre. It is important that we all stand together united by the common purpose of collectively forging effective responses to all current global problems and challenges.”

H.E. Mr D.R Danilo Turk, President
24 September 2008

Terrorism: “Concerns related to security and counterterrorism seems to have contributed to a diminished care for human rights in some societies.”

Armed conflict: “Armed conflict continue to produce atrocities and massive violations of human rights.”

Security: “The third question relates to the maintenance of international peace and security and the necessary transformation in that area. Let me state right at the outset that there is a serious need for transformation of the existing institutions in the field of international security.

“The international security landscape of today offers a mixed picture. After the end of the cold war there were moments of high hopes and moments of deep disappointment.... But we also have to point out that the overall number of armed conflicts has been on decline for more than a decade now ... in no small measure due to the contribution of the UN which has steadily increased its experience and its capacity in the peacekeeping, in post-conflict peace-building and also in preventing diplomacy....

“Progress made so far has established a degree of confidence in the capacity of the international security structures and their key players to cooperate and even to work in partnership for the maintenance of international peace and security. However, it appears that the confidence developed so far is still fragile and that the remnants of the cold war mentality are still in existence.”

North Korea's nuclear programme: “Models of cooperation such as the one established to deal with the issues of North Korea can and should inspire preventive diplomacy and peacemaking in other parts of the world.”

Soloman Islands
H.E. Mr. Derek Sikua, Prime Minister
26 September 2008

Multilateralism and militarism: “This year our multilateral institution is being revisited by history and challenged by the changing international system. Unilateralism and changing postures by big powers is creating a new global order. New fronts are created is Asia, the Pacific, and Eastern Europe coupled with the ongoing conflicts in the Middle East and in parts of Africa. Above all, the arms race is no longer a threat, but a reality.

“Our multilateral institution is heavy on providing technical support and analytical data and less on the ground activities. Regional and sub regional Intergovernmental organizations are also going the same direction, leaving countries to fend for themselves.”

Terrorism: “On the issue of terrorism, Solomon Islands is concerned about the lack of progress on the comprehensive terrorism convention. The absence of a legal definition of terrorism is creating gaps in our global fight against terror. We continue to condemn terrorism in whatever from and manifestation. We urge the international community to weed the evils that breed terrorism. Our fight against terrorism must be responsible and humane.”

H.E. Mr. Ali Ahmed Jama Jengeli, Minister for Foreign Affairs
26 September 2008

Peace: “May I end by emphasizing the importance of conflict prevention, conflict resolution and conflict management not only in Somalia but also throughout Africa and the Developing world. If there IS no peace or security, it is hard to imagine that any meaningful socio-economic development could take place. It is not realistic to expect countries in a state of conflict to achieve all or any of the agreed upon Millennium Development Goals. Therefore it is incumbent upon ail Developing Countries, the United Nations and the UN Security Council to promote the conditions for effective development otherwise the development goats will appear as an exercise in wishful thinking.”

South Africa
H. E. Ms. Nkosazana C. Dlaminni Zuma, Minister for Foreign Affairs
29 September 2008

Multilateralism: “It is important to understand that the critical issues facing the world today—the current financial, food and energy crises—cannot be addressed effectively when so many other countries and regions of the world are left out of the key decision making processes of important institutions of global governance.”

Multilateralism: “We wish to reiterate our belief in the centrality of the United Nations. In the Millennium Declaration we reaffirmed that the United Nations ‘is the indispensable common house of the entire human family, through which we will seek to realise our universal aspirations for peace, cooperation and development’.”

Multilateralism: “As the leadership of our country passes on, we reaffirm that South Africa, under the leadership of President Kgalema Motlanthe, shall indeed continue to be a trusted and dependable partner in the common endeavour to strengthen our institutions of multilateralism, moving from the correct premise that multilateralism remains the only hope in addressing challenges facing humanity today, at the centre of which is the struggle against poverty and underdevelopment.”

H.E. Mr. José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero, President
25 September 2008

Waiting translation.

Sri Lanka
H.E. Mr Mahinda Rajapaksa, President
24 September 2008

Nuclear energy: “Sri Lanka’s own view is that the United Nations and its agencies must take the leadership in developing a framework for international cooperation so that the vulnerable developing countries have access to the energy benefits of the so called ‘nuclear renaissance’, at reasonable and affordable rates. This cooperative endeavour will impact positively in such diverse areas as energy, MDGs, climate change and even arms control.”

War: “With the promulgation of the UN Charter to save succeeding generations from the tragedy of war, at least the major threat of intercontinental war seems to have receded.”

Terrorism: “Today, the United Nations and its people are confronted with the fast spreading menace of terrorism that manifest itself in various forms in Asia, Africa and Latin America. The United Nations has a grave responsibility to save today’s and succeeding generations, from this new and continuing menace.”

Terrorism: “The steadily growing menace of international terrorism, with related activities such as smuggling of illegal arms, human trafficking, drug trafficking, money laundering, and business empires run by terror groups undoubtedly undermine the fundamentals of humanity and civilization. It appears that steps taken by us to eradicate these illegal activities have not been effective. This further complicates all national and international efforts at moving towards realizing MDGs. Terrorism, as I have emphasized many a time, by its very nature, rolls back even our modest achievements.”

Sri Lanka also commented extensively on its conflict with the LTTE.

H.E. Mr. Ali Osman Mohamed Taha, Vice-President
25 September 2008

Waiting translation.

H.E. Mr Runaldo Ronald Venetiaan, President
24 September 2008

Multilateralism: “Suriname has supported the restructuring process of the United Nations from the start, with the aim to achieving a more effective and efficient organization that should be better equipped to adequately address old and new challenges. In this process, we expect that the role of the United Nations as a partner in development will gain further relevance and achieve a more coherent and enhanced presence in support of capacity building and sustainable development.”

Multilateralism: “We have entered an era of growing anxieties and concerns, which go beyond national borders. The contemporary world constellation requires harmonization of the United Nations with current international developments. Suriname believes that the United nations should be given the tools and instruments to enable the Organization to address global challenges in support of a comprehensive and coherent development agenda, in the interest of all the nations of our world.”

His Majesty King Mswati III, Head of State
25 September 2008

Peace and security: “Mr. President, peace, stability and security which form the primary goals of the United Nations remain key pillars to meaningful development.”

Terrorism: “Mr. President, the Kingdom of eSwatini joins the rest of the world in condemning all forms and acts of terrorism. We support efforts for the full implementation of the global counterterrorism strategy in order to send out a clear message to all perpetrators of terrorism. In line with the United Nations convention on terrorism, our parliament has recently promulgated the antiterrorism act.”

Peace and multilateralism: “We treasure peace and development and amicable regional and international relations and together with all nations will work towards a peaceful and prosperous future for all humankind.”

H.E. Mr. Anders Lidén, Chairman of the Delegation
29 September 2008

: “To fight terrorism is to defend human rights. Human rights are key also to countering terrorism. Measures against terrorism will be effective and legitimate only when they are taken within a clear framework of international law.”

Iran and North Korea’s nuclear programmes: “We face a growing danger of nuclear proliferation. Iran is not the only case, though the most worrisome at present. Recent developments in the DPRK also give cause for concern.”

Non-proliferaton and disarmament, nuclear weapons: “The Treaty on Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is the cornerstone of nonproliferation and the foundation for the pursuit of nuclear disarmament. Sweden is strongly committed to upholding and further strengthening existing multilateral disarmament and non-proliferation obligations. The nuclear powers have taken on special commitments within the NPT process. In order not to undermine the treaty, they must demonstrate their readiness to substantially reduce their nuclear arsenals.”

Multilateralism: “This is the time to once again remind ourselves of our mutual commitments and stand up for the universal principles underpinning international cooperation. This is the time to muster the political will to reassert our shared values. This is the time to show that we are determined to work jointly to foster peace, democracy and development worldwide.”

H.E. Mr. Peter Maurer, Ambassador
29 September 2008

Peace: “Cooperation across cultural and religious borders is not always easy. Swiss history has shown that this is most likely to bear fruit when specific problems are tackled and solutions are sought in an open dialogue. This approach is reflected in Swiss peace policy we support projects whose purpose is to bring together people with different values and cultural backgrounds to enable them to coexist in a positive way. This approach also characterizes our activity in the UN-sponsored Alliance of Civilizations.”

Armed violence and development: “Conflict prevention is one of the central tasks of the UN. Switzerland is particularly active on two levels. First we wish to pay closer attention to the connection between ‘Armed Violence and Development’. Together with other partners we intend to present a resolution on this subject during this session of the General Assembly.”

Peace: “Justice is a requirement for lasting peace. Or in other words peace and impunity are incompatible in the long run.”

Peace and multilateralism: “Peace is not a given. It is something that has to be striven for and achieved every day. The UN is the predestined institution for achieving this goal. We are willing, within our capacities, to make a contribution to this necessary collective task.”

Syrian Arab Republic
H.E. M. Walid Al-Moualem, Minister for Foreign Affairs
27 September 2008

Peace and multilateralism: “By calling for convening this quartet summit, Syria stressed that the just and comprehensive peace is its strategic choice and that it is striving to attain it in cooperation with regional and international partners who share Syria's vision. The realization of peace requires from all those who have a direct stake in the matter, or those who have the power or who can influence the outcomes to evince the necessary political will. Years after the will to make peace lost its priority status in policies that do influence the situation in the region we were asked to go to Annapolis…. As President Bashar Al-Assad said, we wanted the negotiations to establish the grounds and pave the way for direct negotiations that would ultimately be sponsored by several international parties. This however requires a genuine Israeli will capable of accommodating the exigencies of peace-making.”

Terrorism: “We have condemned and continue to condemn all the terrorist acts that have a high roll among innocent civilians in Iraq.”

Nuclear energy and Iran's nuclear programme: “The Treaty on the Non-proliferation of Nuclear Weapons guaranteed the right of all states in possessing nuclear technologies for peaceful purposes. Much was said about the Iranian nuclear issue, with some advocating a diplomatic solution and others promoting the use of force. Meanwhile, Iran has time and again stressed that it is solely dedicated to the peaceful uses of nuclear power. Deep mistrust between Iran and its interlocutors complicates matters and prevents stakeholders from reaching an understanding. This is what we are trying to do. We are seeking to arrive at a political understanding of the Iranian nuclear issue. Any other option shall not be in the interest of anyone and shall inflict catastrophic losses on the region and the world.”

WMD Free Zone in the Middle East: “In this context, and in line with our principled position, we call for declaring the Middle East a zone free from all weapons of mass destruction. We recall in this regard the resolution that Syria submitted to the Security Council on October 29, 2003. We at the same time stress the need for compelling Israel to dismantle the hundreds of the nuclear warheads in its possession, to put its nuclear facilitates under the safeguard regime of the IAEA and to adhere to the NPT.”

Terrorism: “Much was said about the war on terror. Years after waging this war, we must ask though, is terrorism less widespread today than it was before? What victory can we claim over this extremely dangerous phenomenon? Accusing countries, for political motives, of sponsoring terrorism is a desperate attempt to justify the failure of the approach pursued by those promoting those claims. In our view, the right approach requires addressing the root causes of terrorism. How can we overcome terrorism if we continue to mix up terrorism with the right of the human being to live on his land free from occupation or threat of war and aggression? We call upon all states to cooperate in the fight against terrorism. We particularly stress the need to avoid mixing up terrorism with fundamental rights because it does a service to terrorism and gives it an opportunity to strike.”

Multilateralism: “The experience of previous years proved that unilaterally dictating the world's political agenda is wrong. The wars and the financial and food crises raging through out the world today require that we work together to address this malfunction through an approach that seeks to engage all regional and international stakeholders through an active diplomacy using dialogue as the means and ways to settle controversial questions.

“Closing the door to dialogue, imposing isolation, unilateral sanctions and diktat have never been a successful tool in the exercise of sound international relations. Contrary to claims made from this very rostrum a couple of days ago, all attempts of isolation were doomed to failure. Respect for the principle of democracy in international relations that takes into account the vision and interests of all states, large and small, will contribute to the realization of peace and stability in the world and help it solve the problems it is facing. The Charter of our international organization, in which states of different perspectives and interests enjoy equal membership, has set forth formulas that remain valid. They could be used to build a world in which justice will reign supreme based on mutual understanding, free from the threat of terror, a world in which there is not place for inciting hatred among cultures and religions. Promoting these values and objectives and using them as the guiding principle for our work will serve the interest of peace and stability in the world and will contribute to the good of humanity at large.”

H.E. Mr. Emomali Rahmon, President
25 September 2008

Multilateralism: “We believe that there is an urgent need to efficiently develop a dialogue and cooperation among all the entities of the multipolar world, and to avoid application of double standards in the international practice.”

Multilateralism and terrorism: “Not a single country in the world, even the most powerful one, is capable of meeting single handedly the challenges of our time that range from climate change to uncompromising combat against international terrorism. Nowadays, like never before, the new generation of global issues requires a collective response, and the UN, entrusted with a broad mandate, is the only one existing instrument capable of addressing them.”

Terrorism: “The situation in Afghanistan devastated by a long conflict and violence, gives rise to a grounded concern. Afghanistan needs not only increased military presence on its territory but rather a target economic, technical and humanitarian assistance. Experience show that often military actions aimed at combating terrorist groups are fare less effective than thoroughly thought non-violent political and economic measures.”

Terrorism: “The global system on counteracting terrorism, transnational organized crime and illicit drug trafficking, which is currently being shaped, can not be built without the support from the regional organizations.”

Peace: “To strengthen peace and stability the countries that lived through internal conflict need not only humanitarian assistance but also actual assistance in dealing with their economic and social problems, as well as support of their efforts aimed at establishing a foundational essential for transition to sustainable development.”

Did not speak at the general debate.

Did not speak at the general debate.

H.E. Mr. José Ramos-Horta, President
25 September 2008

No relevant references.

H.E. Mr. Kofi Esaw, Minister for Foreign Affairs and Regional Integration
27 September 2008

Waiting translation.

H.E. Dr. Feleti Vaka’uta Sevele, Prime Minister
26 September 2008

Multilateralism: “In our globalized world, no sovereign nation can achieve its goals of progress, peace and security on its own, and neither can the Kingdom of Tonga. Constructive and active engagement in regional and international affairs through bilateral and multilateral cooperation mechanisms, with the United Nations at the center, and greater, yet appropriate, integration into the global economy will thus continue to be the cornerstone of Tonga’s foreign policy.

“As a member of the United Nations, Tonga wishes to reaffirm its commitment to continuing its active involvement in the work of the United Nations as the central coordinating body of common efforts of the family of nations to which we all belong.”

Trinidad and Tobago
H.E. Ms. Paula Gopee-Scoon, Minister of Foreign Affairs
27 September 2008

Terrorism: “Similarly, Mr. President, like poverty and hunger, terrorism remains a major scourge on our societies and poses a dire threat to democratic institutions. It undermines the rule of law, infringes human rights and generally affects the well-being of its victims. Trinidad and Tobago is convinced that members of the international community must embrace multilateral solutions in the fight against terrorism. We remain committed to the Global Counter Terrorism Strategy, which is complementary to our own efforts to combat terrorism.”

Small arms and light weapons, disarmament, Arms Trade Treaty: “The Caribbean also falls pretty to the nefarious trade in narcotics, to which is linked the illegal proliferation of small arms and light weapons. In an effort to confront these challenges, we have concluded with out neighbors the CARICOM Maritime and Air Space Security Cooperation Agreement to protect our borders from illegal activities. We, however, recognize the important role of the United Nations, as the multilateral forum, in providing assistance in areas such as capacity building to augment our own resources. For the States of Caribbean, a critical aspect of disarmament is the eradication of the illegal trade in small arms. Trinidad and Tobago, therefore, calls for urgent action to compete the work on the elaboration of an Arms Trade Treaty.”

Multilateralism: “In conclusion, Trinidad and Tobago wishes to reaffirm its faith and commitment to multilateralism, both at the regional, hemispheric and international levels. Dialogue among States must always be the preferred option to solve the myriad [of] problems, which we face in an increasingly complex international environment. It is in recognition of this importance that Trinidad and Tobago has taken the bold decision to host, in 2009, both the Summit of the Americas and the Conference of Heads of Government of the Commonwealth of Nations. Dialogue in these two bodies, which are microcosms of the United Nations, could also influence discussions at the United Nations, an institution which we must continue to transform, guard and protect in order to bequeath to future generations.”

H.E. M. Abdelwaheb Abdallah, Minister for Foreign Affairs
27 September 2008

Multilateralism, peace, and security: “Tunisia supports all efforts and initiatives aimed at establishing new frameworks and mechanisms of action that can help find collective solutions to the common challenges posed in the vital fields of security, peace, development, the environment and food security, as part of an adequate approach to international relations founded on the complementarity between peace, security, and development. This, however, should be accompanied by a strengthened multilateral action on the basis of cooperation, solidarity, and a constructive dialogue among all countries.”

Multilateralism and terrorism: “The aggravation of the terrorism problem in the world, despite the efforts to contain it, reinforces our conviction of the need to unify the international approach to fight this scourge and find adequate solutions to it. Tunisia has warned, since the early 1990s, the international community against the dangers of terrorism, and called for the adoption of a comprehensive and efficient approach that takes into consideration the root causes of this scourge. Today, we renew the call of H.E. President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali to convene an international conference, under the United Nations auspices, in order to elaborate a code of conduct for the fight against terrorism, to which all parties shall commit themselves.”

Peace: “We reaffirm Tunisia’s commitment to the values of peace and to the principles of international legality as the path to reaching just and lasting solutions to pending international issues. We also renew our determination to promote the values of moderation, tolerance, and mutual respect in relations among countries and peoples, and to establish bridges of communication and dialogue between all civilizations, cultures, and religions.”

Peace: “Throughout the various development plans, Tunisia persevered in its endeavor for development and modernization, in order to strengthen its capacity to keep up with international changes and actively contribute to building a world of peace and security and establishing more balanced and solidarity-based international relations.”

Multilateralism: “Keen on achieving a higher degree of integration within its regional and international environments, Tunisia is pursuing its action, on the bilateral and multilateral levels, to open up on the various spaces to which it belongs, and to develop its political relations with sisterly and friendly countries and with regional and international organizations. It also endeavors to enlarge and diversify the scope of cooperation with them, in order to raise these relations to the level of an effective partnership based on mutual respect and common interests.”

Multilateralism: “Facing the challenges posed by the new international situation and the deep changes taking place on the world scene requires that we all step up efforts to further anchor the noble universal principles and humanist values on which the United Nations was founded. It also requires perseverance in enhancing the process of reforming our Organization, in order to confer more efficiency on its work and ensure its active contribution to providing optimum international conditions that can help find collective solutions to common challenges and current international issues, meet our peoples’ aspirations for stability, and provide propitious conditions for prosperity and well-being, within a context of cooperation and solidarity-based development.”

H.E. Mr. Abdullah Gül, President
23 September 2008

Terrorism: “We will also continue our initiatives to create an atmosphere conducive to regional ownership and cooperation, in particular between Pakistan and Afghanistan. That is equally vital for the common struggle against terrorism and for the stability of the region.”

Iran's nuclear programme: “Finally, an urgent and peaceful settlement of the question of Iran’s nuclear program in conformity with the IAEA norms and NPT obligations, respecting the right to peaceful use of nuclear energy, remains high on Turkey’s active diplomatic agenda.”

H.E. M. Rashid Meredov, Deputy Prime Minister and Minister for Foreign Affairs
29 September 2008

Multilateralism: “At the present stage the United Nations Organization, which Is called under its mandate to discuss and resolve issues relating to the maintenance of international peace and security, is going through one of the most critical moments in the history of its existence. This is especially evident against the background of the developments that are happening today both at the global and regional level. Diversity of the entire spectrum of contemporary challenges and threats calls for an adequate development of the entire range of approaches to their prevention through interaction of all UN member stales.”

Terrorism and WMD: “Today we need real measures for countering and fighting such global challenges as international terrorism, human trafficking, organized crime, illegal drug trafficking and the threat of proliferation of the weapons of mass destruction.”

Multilateralism and terrorism: “Turkmenistan is a principled and active participant in the process designed to identify joint actions aimed at resolving the most pressing problems of our time. In this context we regard the need to intensify international actions aimed at ensuring peace and security as one of the first priority tasks. Fight against terrorism is one of the most important aspects of this problem.”

Terrorism: “Turkmenistan as a party to major instruments adopted by the United Nations with a view to combat international terrorism and organized crime supports United Nations efforts aimed at developing a global strategy to fight terrorism and stands ready to provide its practical assistance to the international community in this regard.”

WMD, non-proliferation, Nuclear Weapon Free Zone in Central Asia: “Non-proliferation of weapons of mass destruction is a pressing issue of international agenda thai is connected with ensuring peace and security. Our country plays an active role in identifying nonproliferation measures and takes practical steps for their implementation both at the national and international levels. As a party to the Comprehensive Treaty on Nuclear Non-Proliferation and other most important international legal instruments in this sphere Turkmenistan joined the international initiative aimed at preventing proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. In this connection the signing of the Treaty on Establishing a Nuclear-Free Zone in Central Asia which was prepared and adopted under the aegis of the United Nations has become an important element in the efforts of the world community aimed at resolving this issue.”

Multilateralism: “Today we all face the need to take a fresh look at the existing system for ensuring international peace and security. Present day situation and emerging tendencies call for an adequate approach and formulation of comprehensive measures and member states of the Community of Nations should take part in their implementation. I am confident that ongoing discussions and deliberations at the General Assembly session will provide an opportunity to take stock of the entire panorama of contemporary world through the prism of ensuring safe life for states and peoples.... Turkmenistan stands for close cooperation with the United Nations in executing comprehensive measures for collective interaction in order to deal with the most pressing issues of our times.”

Peace: “Turkmenistan advocates that the Caspian area should be a zone of peace, stability and effective international cooperation on the basis of principles of mutual respect and mutually beneficial partnership.”

Multilateralism: “We view the United Nations as a universal international organization serving as the main guarantor of the global security system, the framework of present and future world order. We advocate that international law, UN Charter and their principles of respect for the sovereignty of every nation and its choice of its own way of development and non-interference in the internal affairs should remain the basis of the world order and the Alpha and Omega of relations among nations.”

H.E. Mr. Apisai Ielemia, Prime Minister and Minister for Foreign Affairs and Labour
26 September 2008

No relevant references.

H.E. Mr. Yoweri Kaguta Museveni, President of the Republic of Uganda
23 September 2008

No relevant references.

H.E. Mr. Victor Yushchenko, President
24 September 2008

Security: “We call for the strengthening of the Security Council role - the only body which as an exclusive authority in issues of peace and security.”

Terrorism and WMD: “Ukraine will keep an eye on the whole range of common tasks: [including] international terrorism and proliferation of weapons of mass destruction.”

United Arab Emirates
H.E. Mr. Sheikh Abdullah Bin Zayed Al Nahyan, Minister of Foreign Affairs
27 September 2008

Terrorism: “In addition, we believe that providing education for all is one of the major issues that faces us. It is essential that the adequate resources are allocated to it, since in the process of education lies the hope that we can break the evil cycle represented by poverty and ignorance that, in turn, leads to the creation of fertile soil in which terrorism and extremism can take root and grow.”

WMD Free Zone in the Middle East, Iran’s nuclear programme: “We emphasize our belief in the Importance of the Middle East and the Arabian Gulf becoming demilitarized zones, especially with regards to weapons of mass destruction. We reaffirm our belief in the necessity for Israel to be obliged to comply with United Nations resolutions by bringing its nuclear facilities into compliance with the safeguards regime of the International Atomic Energy Agency and to sign, unconditionally, the Nuclear Weapons Non-Proliferation Treaty. We also urge the Islamic Republic of Iran to continue its collaboration with the IAEA and the international community, so as to dispel concerns and suspicions related to the nature and objectives of its nuclear programme. At the same time, we urge other concerned parties to commit themselves to continue the current political and diplomatic approach in tackling this issue, within a framework of complete transparency and avoiding any escalation, until such time as a peaceful solution is achieved that is capable of providing peace and security for the region and its peoples.”

Nuclear energy: “Pursuant to our firm conviction of the undeniable right of countries to develop nuclear energy for peaceful purposes in accordance with the safeguards framework of the IAEA, we urge the developed nations to support the legitimate needs of developing countries for access to such energy by providing them with the best possible access for the acquiring of tools, devices, nuclear materials and the technological know-how applicable for peaceful purposes. In this context, the UAE believes that its peaceful nuclear programme represents a practical and responsible example of transparency for meeting our energy needs while, at the same time, committing ourselves not to engage in enrichment or re-processing, with the support of some friendly countries and organizations, and under the supervision of the IAEA.”

Terrorism: “We express our satisfaction at the positive developments in relations between Afghanistan and Pakistan, and view this partnership as a major component in the fight against terrorism.”

Terrorism: “My country has collaborated effectively with all efforts to combat terrorism in all its forms, including financial aspects as such as money laundering. We will continue to do this, in order to rid the world of the epidemic of terrorism and to obliterate those forces that engage in it or support it. At the same time, we re-emphasize our support for all those initiatives that are being undertaken to promote a dialogue between civilizations and to promote a spirit of tolerance between faiths.”

United Kingdom
H.E. Mr. Gordon Brown, Prime Minister
26 September 2008

Multilateralism: “The world we share is more interconnected than ever before. And the solutions have to be similarly co-ordinated.”

Multilateralism: “The United Nations is where the world turns to confront some of its greatest challenges. It is where international law is made. Where the most acute political problems are addressed. And where the hopes of the world for a better future ultimately rest.”

United States of America
H.E. Mr. George W. Bush, President
23 September 2008

North Korea and Iran's nuclear programmes: “We must remain vigilant against proliferation –- by fully implementing the terms of Security Council Resolution 1540, and enforcing sanctions against North Korea and Iran. We must not relent until our people are safe from this threat to civilization.”

Terrorism: “We have an obligation to prevent our territory from being used as a sanctuary for terrorism and proliferation.”

Terrorism and multilateralism: “Multilateral organizations have responsibilities.  For eight years, the nations in this assembly have worked together to confront the extremist threat.  We witnessed successes and setbacks, and through it all a clear lesson has emerged:  The United Nations and other multilateral organizations are needed more urgently than ever.  To be successful, we must be focused and resolute and effective.  Instead of only passing resolutions decrying terrorist attacks after they occur, we must cooperate more closely to keep terrorist attacks from happening in the first place.  Instead of treating all forms of government as equally tolerable, we must actively challenge the conditions of tyranny and despair that allow terror and extremism to thrive. By acting together to meet the fundamental challenge of our time, we can lead toward a world that is more secure, and more prosperous, and more hopeful.

“In the decades ahead, the United Nations and other multilateral organizations must continually confront terror.  This mission requires clarity of vision.  We must see the terrorists for what they are:  ruthless extremists who exploit the desperate, subvert the tenets of a great religion, and seek to impose their will on as many people as possible.  Some suggest that these men would pose less of a threat if we'd only leave them alone.  Yet their leaders make clear that no concession could ever satisfy their ambitions.  Bringing the terrorists to justice does not create terrorism -- it's the best way to protect our people.

“Multilateral organizations must respond by taking an unequivocal moral stand against terrorism.  No cause can justify the deliberate taking of innocent human life –- and the international community is nearing universal agreement on this truth.  The vast majority of nations in this assembly now agree that tactics like suicide bombing, hostage-taking and hijacking are never legitimate.  The Security Council has passed resolutions declaring terror unlawful and requiring all nations to crack down on terrorist financing.  And earlier this month, the Secretary General held a conference to highlight victims of terror, where he stated that terrorism can never be justified.

“Other multilateral organizations have spoken clearly, as well.  The G8 has declared that all terrorist acts are criminal and must be universally condemned.  And the Secretary General of the Organization of the Islamic Conference recently spoke out against a suicide bombing, which he said runs counter to the teachings of Islam.  The message behind these statements is resolutely clear:  Like slavery and piracy, terrorism has no place in the modern world.

“Around the globe, nations are turning these words into action.  Members of the United Nations are sharing intelligence with one another, conducting joint operations, and freezing terrorist finances.  While terrorists continue to carry out attacks like the terrible bombing in Islamabad last week, our joint actions have spared our citizens from many devastating blows. 

“With the brutal nature of the extremists increasingly clear, the coalition of nations confronting terror is growing stronger.  Over the past seven years, Afghanistan and Iraq have been transformed from regimes that actively sponsor terror to democracies that fight terror.  Libya has renounced its support for terror and its pursuit of nuclear weapons.  Nations like Saudi Arabia and Pakistan are actively pursuing the terrorists.   A few nations –- regimes like Syria and Iran –- continue to sponsor terror.  Yet their numbers are growing fewer, and they're growing more isolated from the world.

“As the 21st century unfolds, some may be tempted to assume that the threat has receded.  This would be comforting; it would be wrong.  The terrorists believe time is on their side, so they made waiting out civilized nations part of their strategy.  We must not allow them to succeed.  The nations of this body must stand united in the fight against terror.  We must continue working to deny the terrorists refuge anywhere in the world, including ungoverned spaces.  We must remain vigilant against proliferation –- by fully implementing the terms of Security Council Resolution 1540, and enforcing sanctions against North Korea and Iran.  We must not relent until our people are safe from this threat to civilization.

“To uphold the Charter's promise of peace and security in the 21st century, we must also confront the ideology of the terrorists.  At its core, the struggle against extremists is a battle of ideas.  The terrorists envision a world in which religious freedom is denied, women are oppressed, and all dissent is crushed.  The nations of this chamber must present a more hopeful alternative—a vision where people can speak freely, and worship as they choose, and pursue their dreams in liberty.”

“The extremists find their most fertile recruiting grounds in societies trapped in chaos and despair –- places where people see no prospect of a better life.  In the shadows of hopelessness, radicalism thrives.  And eventually, that radicalism can boil over into violence and cross borders and take innocent lives across the world.”

“The objectives I've laid out for multilateral institutions  -- confronting terror, opposing tyranny, and promoting effective development -- are difficult, but they are necessary tasks.  To have maximum impact, multilateral institutions must take on challenging missions.  And like all of us in this chamber, they must work toward measurable goals, be accountable for their actions, and hold true to their word.”

H.E. Dr. Gonzalo Fernandez, Minister of Foreign Affairs of Uruguay
27 September 2008

Multialteralism: “That’s why we understand that it is relevant to reaffirm, the importance that has acquired its effective use in the present international context and to emphasize, once again, the traditional Uruguayan position of unrestricted respect to international law, its support to multilateralism...”

Terrorism: “While renewing its firm commitment in the fight against terrorism, Uruguay reiterates its rejection to all terrorist attacks. We fully condemn all attacks against civil population as well as attacks against infrastructure whose destruction directly or indirectly affects civil population. Terrorism must be clearly condemned. We must increase cooperation among States with the aim to prevent that such attacks remain unpunished but at the same time making sure that the fight against terrorism is based on the Rule of Law and with due respect to international humanitarian law and human rights law.”

Multilateralism: “...the support of multilateralism implies the search of collective answers to international conflicts and problems, in accordance with the international law and within the framework of the principles of the UN Charter, that regulate the peaceful coexistence among nations.”

H.E. Mr. Vladimir Norov, Minister of Foreign Affairs
27 September 2008

No relevant references.

H.E. Mr. Kalkot Matas Kelekele, President
26 September 2008

No relevant references.

H.E. Mr. Francisco Javier Arias Cardenas, Deputy Foreign Minister
29 September 2008

Waiting translation.

Viet Nam
H.E. M. Pham Gia Khiem, Deputy Prime Minister and Minister for Foreign Affairs
27 September 2008

Peace and terrorism: “While the trend of peace, cooperation and development continued to prevail, there have been complex developments in the world during the last year. Enduring local conflicts and acts of terrorism still occurred in many parts of the world and new tension has emerged in Europe, including in the Balkans and the Caucasus.”

Iran and North Korea's nuclear programmes, nuclear enegy, non-proliferation: “We should also work to facilitate further progress in the search for lasting peaceful solutions to the nuclear issues on the Korean Peninsular and Iran on the basis of due respect for both the legitimate rights of states to develop and use nuclear energy for peaceful purposes and the regime of non-proliferation of nuclear weapons.”

Peace: “As leaders of the world gathered here to discuss the development needs of Africa, we realized clearly the organic relationship between peace and development... Viet Nam undertakes to work closely with the United Nations and the African Union to find peaceful solutions to conflicts and disputes that are still raging on in this continent.”

H.E. Mr. Abubakr Al-Qirbi, Minister of Foreign Affairs
29 September 2008

Waiting translation.

H.E. Mr. Kabinga Jacus Pande, Minister for Foreign Affairs
27 September 2008

Multilateralism: “There is no doubt that the United Nations continues to remain the only multilateral institution capable of addressing challenges to our ‘One World’.”

H.E. Mr. Robert Mugabe, President
25 September 2008

Multilateralism: “Zimbabwe has always been and continues to be a firm believer in multilateral approaches to solving disputes as opposed to the unilateralism favoured by some countries. Our experience has shown that the cooperative and pacific approach often leads to lasting solutions to conflicts. We therefore deplore the vindictive approach which often is characterized by self-righteous finger-pointing, double standards and the imposition of unilateral sanctions to coerce smaller and weaker countries to bow to the wishes of militarily stronger states. In addition, the unilateral and coercive economic measures, that we have witnessed in recent years, are again completely at cross purposes with the principles that guide international co-operation as enshrined in the Charter of the United Nations.”

Multilateralism: “We share the view that the General Assembly, a body that represents all of us and enjoys the wider representation of States, must continue to be the supreme decision-making body of the U.N.”