Assuring destruction forever: 2022 edition
This updated study explores the ongoing and planned nuclear weapon modernisation programmes in China, the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, France, India, Israel, Pakistan, Russian Federation, the United Kingdom, and the United States.
As of late 2021, the nuclear-armed states are estimated to possess approximately 13,150 nuclear weapons, most of which are many times more powerful than the nuclear weapon dropped on Hiroshima. All the nuclear-armed states have plans to modernise—upgrade and / or extend the lives of—their nuclear weapons, including in the midst of a global health pandemic in which most governments have been unable to provide adequate protective equipment, and medical supplies and services.
This report is an update of a study that Reaching Critical Will initiated in 2012. Each chapter of the Assuring destruction forever: 2022 edition has been prepared by experts on national nuclear weapon programmes. Each goes through the current status of nuclear weapon forces; modernisation programmes and plans; the costs of these programmes; the countries’ positions on international nuclear weapon law and policy; and public discourse related to nuclear weapons. This 2022 edition is a light update from the 2020 edition, which was intended for publication at the time of the Tenth Review Conference of the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), originally scheduled for April 2020 and now postponed multiple times.
Edited by Allison Pytlak and Ray Acheson
Published in January 2022 by Reaching Critical Will, a programme of the Women’s International League for Peace and Freedom
Introduction Ray Acheson
China Hui Zhang
Democratic People's Republic of Korea Ko YouKyoung
France Hans Kristensen
India M.V. Ramana and Prerna Gupta
Israel Sharon Dolev
Pakistan Zia Mian
Russia Pavel Podvig
United Kingdom Janet Fenton
United States Greg Mello and Trish Williams-Mello
About the authors
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