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UNGA Disarmament Index 2012: H–R

This is an index of all references made to issues of disarmament, peace, and security, made in the 67th General Debate of the United Nations General Assembly from 25 September–1 October 2012. Included in this index are all references made to arms control, disarmament, multilateralism, nuclear energy, security, proliferation, the arms trade, and nuclear and conventional weapons.

A-G | H-R | S-Z

Haiti | Holy See | Honduras | Hungary
Iceland | India | Indonesia | Iran | Iraq | Ireland | Israel | Italy
Jamaica | Japan | Jordan
Kazakhstan
| Kenya | Kiribati | Kuwait | Kyrgyzstan
Laos
| Latvia | Lebanon | Lesotho | Liberia | Libya | Liechtenstein | Lithuania | Luxembourg
Macedonia | Madagascar | Malawi | Malaysia | Maldives | Mali | Malta | Marshall Islands | Mauritania | Mauritius | Mexico | Micronesia | Moldova | Monaco | Mongolia | Montenegro | Morocco | Mozambique | Myanmar
Namibia
| Nauru | Nepal | Netherlands | New Zealand | Nicaragua | Niger  | Nigeria | Norway
Oman
Pakistan
| Palau | Palestine | Panama | Papua New Guinea | Paraguay | Peru | Philippines | Poland | Portugal
Qatar
Republic of Korea | Republic of Moldova | Romania | Russian Federation | Rwanda

Haiti
H.E. Mr. Michel Joseph Martelly,
26 September 2012

No relevant comments.

Holy See
H.E. Mr. Archbishop Dominique Mamberti, Secretary for Relations
1 October 2012

NPT, IAEA: “What has been of particular importance, for the destiny of humanity, is the adoption of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and the action of the International Atomic Energy Agency in promoting universal support of it, controlling the application of it, and facilitating international cooperation to guarantee the peaceful use of the atom.”

Honduras
H.E. Mr. Porfirio Lobo Sosa,
President
25 September 2012

No relevant comments.

Hungary
H.E. Mr. János Áder, President
25 September 2012

No relevant comments.

Iceland
H.E. Mr. Össur Skarphéðinsson, Minister for Foreign Affairs

29 September 2012

Iran’s nuclear programme: “I listened to Mr. Netanyahu's speech on Thursday, and I have a comment to make on behalf of the Icelandic people: Don’t bomb Iran. Don’t start another war in the Middle East. At the same time I say to President Ahmadinejad and the Iranian leadership: Don’t build a bomb. Let diplomacy work, not rabblerousing or fearmongering. Let’s work for peace together.”

India
H.E. Mr. S. M. Krishna, Minister for External Affairs
1 October 2012

WMD: “And, threats emanating from terrorism, maritime piracy, drug trafficking and proliferation of weapons of mass destruction continue to multiply.”

Disarmament: “Peacekeeping and disarmament are among the most unique pursuits of the UN because they embody the promise and innate potential of the organization to make the world a better place.”

Nuclear disarmament: “India is committed to achieving a nuclear weapons-free world. The principles of the Rajiv Gandhi Action Plan of 1988 for achieving nuclear disarmament in a time-bound, universal, non-discriminatory, phased and verifiable manner remain relevant even after more than two decades.

“There is need to forge a renewed consensus on non-proliferation and nuclear disarmament. There is also need for meaningful dialogue among all states possessing nuclear weapons to build trust and confidence and for reducing the salience of nuclear weapons in international affairs and security doctrines.”

Nuclear security, nuclear terrorism: “Measures must be taken to reduce nuclear risks, including the grave risks posed by terrorists gaining access to weapons of mass destruction, thus strengthening nuclear security.”   

Disarmament machinery: “The Conference on Disarmament - the international community's sole multilateral disarmament negotiating forum, deserves our support in discharging its mandate of negotiating treaties on issues on the international disarmament agenda.”

Indonesia
H.E. DR. Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono, President of the Republic of Indonesia
25 September 2012

Nuclear weapons: “Freedom has spread. The threat of nuclear holocaust is receding significantly”.

Nuclear disarmament: “In this 'warm peace' the world community still has to contend with an array of unfinished business: the Arab-Israeli conflict, nuclear disarmament, territorial disputes in the South China Sea, tensions in the Korean Peninsula, and the like.”

Iran (Islamic Republic of)
H.E. Mr. Mahmoud Ahmadinejad
, President

26 September 2012

Arms, military expenditure: “Had the arms been turned into pens, and military expenditures been used to promote well-being and amity among nations, […] Imagine how beautiful and pleasant our lives and how lovely the history of mankind would have been.”

Nuclear weapons: “Arms race and intimidation by nuclear weapons and weapons of mass destruction by the hegemonic powers have become prevalent: Testing new generations of ultra-modern weaponry and the pledge to disclose these armaments on due time is now being used as a new language of threat against nations to coerce them into accepting a new era of hegemony. Continued threat by the uncivilized Zionists to resort to military action against our great nation is a clear example of this bitter reality.”

“No one feels secure or safe even those who have stockpiled thousands of atomic bombs and other arms in their arsenals.”

Iraq
H.E. Mr. Khudayr al-Khuzai, Vice President
27 September 2012

Israel’s nuclear programme: “All of this comes in conjunction with an Israeli disregard to the repeated international calls to sign the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons and to place its nuclear installation and military arsenal under the monitoring of the IAEA, which causes us to tirelessly call to disarm our region.”

WMDFZ in the Middle East: “In this regard Iraq support and work with the International Community to create a Middle East free of nuclear weapons and all kind of weapons of mass destruction. Therefore Iraq support the efforts to hold the UN conference in Helsinki Finland in December 2012 to come out with practical steps lead to establish the free zone and the failure of this conference may result in arms race in a region which needs peace and stability.”

Iran’s nuclear programme, nuclear energy: “We also uphold the principles of good-neighborliness and the principle of dialogue in our Arab and Muslim region as well as the whole world. Our positive initiative manifested by Iraq's hosting of the League of The Arab States Summit in March of this year declared Iraq's return to its active and natural roles in the joint Arab action system. This was followed by Iraq's hosting of one of the negotiation rounds regarding the Iranian Nuclear issue in an objective, balanced and responsible spirit that affirms Iraq's clear position vis a vis this case. A position that candidly declares Iraq's support for International efforts spent to prevent the proliferation of nuclear armament while affirming the right of people and countries to benefit from peaceful nuclear energy.”

Ireland
H.E. Mr. Eamon Gilmore
, Deputy Prime Minister

28 September 2012

Nuclear disarmament, non-proliferation: “From the earliest days of our UN membership, we pioneered the promotion of nuclear disarmament and nonproliferation.”

Israel
H.E. Mr. Benjamin Netanyahu
, Prime Minister

27 September 2012

Iran’s nuclear programme: “At stake is not merely the future of my own country. At stake is the future of the world. Nothing could imperil our common future more than the arming of Iran with nuclear weapons.”

“To understand what the world would be like with a nuclear-armed Iran, just imagine the world with a nuclear-armed al-Qaida.”

“It makes no difference whether these lethal weapons are in the hands of the world's most dangerous terrorist regime or the world's most dangerous terrorist organization. They're both fired by the same hatred; they're both driven by the same lust for violence.”

“Just look at what the Iranian regime has done up till now, without nuclear weapons.”

“So I ask you, given this record of Iranian aggression without nuclear weapons, just imagine Iranian aggression with nuclear weapons. Imagine their long range missiles tipped with nuclear warheads, their terror networks armed with atomic bombs. Who among you would feel safe in the Middle East? Who would be safe in Europe? Who would be safe in America? Who would be safe anywhere? There are those who believe that a nuclear-armed Iran can be deterred like the Soviet Union. But deterrence may not work with the Iranians once they get nuclear weapons.

Just listen to Ayatollah Rafsanjani who said, I quote: "The use of even one nuclear bomb inside Israel will destroy everything, however it would only harm the Islamic world." Rafsanjani said: "It is not irrational to contemplate such an eventuality." Not irrational… And that's coming from one of the so-called moderates of Iran. Shockingly, some people have begun to peddle the absurd notion that a nuclear-armed Iran would actually stabilize the Middle East. Yeah, right… That's like saying a nuclear-armed al-Qaida would usher in an era of universal peace. Ladies and Gentlemen, I've been speaking about the need to prevent Iran from developing nuclear weapons for over 15 years. I speak about it now because the hour is getting late, very late. I speak about it now because the Iranian nuclear calendar doesn't take time out for anyone or for anything. I speak about it now because when it comes to the survival of my country, it's not only my right to speak; it's my duty to speak. And I believe that this is the duty of every responsible leader who wants to preserve world peace. For nearly a decade, the international community has tried to stop the Iranian nuclear program with diplomacy. That hasn't worked. Iran uses diplomatic negotiations as a means to buy time to advance its nuclear program.

“I want to thank the governments represented here that have joined in this effort. It's had an effect. Oil exports have been curbed and the Iranian economy has been hit hard. It's had an effect on the economy, but we must face the truth. Sanctions have not stopped Iran's nuclear program either. “

“According to the International Atomic Energy Agency, during the last year alone, Iran has doubled the number of centrifuges in its underground nuclear facility in Qom.”

“At this late hour, there is only one way to peacefully prevent Iran from getting atomic bombs. That's by placing a clear red line on Iran's nuclear weapons program. Red lines don't lead to war; red lines prevent war.”

“President Kennedy set a red line during the Cuban Missile Crisis. That red line also prevented war and helped preserve the peace for decades.”

“Clear red lines have also worked with Iran. Earlier this year, Iran threatened to close the Straits of Hormouz. The United States drew a clear red line and Iran backed off. Red lines could be drawn in different parts of Iran's nuclear weapons program. But to be credible, a red line must be drawn first and foremost in one vital part of their program: on Iran's efforts to enrich uranium. Now let me explain why: Basically, any bomb consists of explosive material and a mechanism to ignite it. The simplest example is gunpowder and a fuse. That is, you light the fuse and set off the gunpowder.

“In the case of Iran's plans to build a nuclear weapon, the gunpowder is enriched uranium. The fuse is a nuclear detonator. For Iran, amassing enough enriched uranium is far more difficult than producing the nuclear fuse.

“For a country like Iran, it takes many, many years to enrich uranium for a bomb. That requires thousands of centrifuges spinning in tandem in very big industrial plants. Those Iranian plants are visible and they're still vulnerable. In contrast, Iran could produce the nuclear detonator – the fuse – in a lot less time, maybe under a year, maybe only a few months. The detonator can be made in a small workshop the size of a classroom. It may be very difficult to find and target that workshop, especially in Iran. That's a country that's bigger than France, Germany, Italy and Britain combined. The same is true for the small facility in which they could assemble a warhead or a nuclear device that could be placed in a container ship. Chances are you won't find that facility either.”

“So in fact the only way that you can credibly prevent Iran from developing a nuclear weapon, is to prevent Iran from amassing enough enriched uranium for a bomb.

“So, how much enriched uranium do you need for a bomb? And how close is Iran to getting it? Let me show you. I brought a diagram for you. Here's the diagram.

“This is a bomb; this is a fuse.

“In the case of Iran's nuclear plans to build a bomb, this bomb has to be filled with enough enriched uranium. And Iran has to go through three stages.

“The first stage: they have to enrich enough of low enriched uranium.

“The second stage: they have to enrich enough medium enriched uranium.

“And the third stage and final stage: they have to enrich enough high enriched uranium for the first bomb.

“Where's Iran? Iran's completed the first stage. It took them many years, but they completed it and they're 70% of the way there.

“Now they are well into the second stage. By next spring, at most by next summer at current enrichment rates, they will have finished the medium enrichment and move on to the final stage. From there, it's only a few months, possibly a few weeks before they get enough enriched uranium for the first bomb.

“Ladies and Gentlemen, What I told you now is not based on secret information. It's not based on military intelligence. It's based on public reports by the International Atomic Energy Agency. Anybody can read them. They're online.

“Before Iran completes the second stage of nuclear enrichment necessary to make a bomb. Before Iran gets to a point where it's a few months away or a few weeks away from amassing enough enriched uranium to make a nuclear weapon. Each day, that point is getting closer. That's why I speak today with such a sense of urgency. And that's why everyone should have a sense of urgency.

“Some who claim that even if Iran completes the enrichment process, even if it crosses that red line that I just drew, our intelligence agencies will know when and where Iran will make the fuse, assemble the bomb, and prepare the warhead. Look, no one appreciates our intelligence agencies more than the Prime Minister of Israel. All these leading intelligence agencies are superb, including ours. They've foiled many attacks. They've saved many lives. “

“For over two years, our intelligence agencies didn't know that Iran was building a huge nuclear enrichment plant under a mountain.

“Do we want to risk the security of the world on the assumption that we would find in time a small workshop in a country half the size of Europe? Ladies and Gentlemen, The relevant question is not when Iran will get the bomb. The relevant question is at what stage can we no longer stop Iran from getting the bomb.

“The red line must be drawn on Iran's nuclear enrichment program because these enrichment facilities are the only nuclear installations that we can definitely see and credibly target.

“I believe that faced with a clear red line, Iran will back down.

“This will give more time for sanctions and diplomacy to convince Iran to dismantle its nuclear weapons program altogether.

“Two days ago, from this podium, President Obama reiterated that the threat of a nuclear-armed Iran cannot be contained. I very much appreciate the President's position as does everyone in my country. We share the goal of stopping Iran's nuclear weapons program. This goal unites the people of Israel. It unites Americans, Democrats and Republicans alike and it is shared by important leaders throughout the world.”

Italy
H.E. Mr. Mario Monti
, Prime Minister

26 September 2012

Nuclear proliferation, Iran’s nuclear programme: “Nor can we underestimate the increasing danger of nuclear proliferation. Italy supports the IAEA's commitment to obtaining clarification of the true nature of the Iranian nuclear program and we urge Iran to fully comply with all the relevant Security Council resolutions.”

Arms control, nuclear disarmament: “Italy advocates more effective arms control regimes, and looks forward to concrete nuclear disarmament measures as proposed in President Obama's Prague Appeal.”

Jamaica
H.E. Ms. Portia Simpson Miller, Prime Minister
27 September 2012

Small arms and light weapons, ammunition, arms trade treaty: "Transnational crime, narco-trafficking and the illicit trade in small arms and ammunition are major components of the cycle of insecurity. They continue to endanger lives, undermine the rule of law, and fuel violent crime. We remain resolute in our call for increased partnership to fight this scourge and will continue to work with all delegations to achieve a comprehensive and robust Arms Trade Treaty."

Japan
H.E. Mr. Yoshihiko Noda,
Prime Minister

26 September 2012

Nuclear safety: “The Fukushima Ministerial Conference on Nuclear Safety, which is scheduled for the end of this year and co-sponsored by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), and the 3rd United Nations World Conference on Disaster Reduction, which Japan aims to host in three years, will all provide meaningful opportunities to share lessons.”

Nuclear proliferation: “Threats that may endanger human existence lie in advanced civilization itself, and not only in nature. There are a number of examples of threats such as environmental degradation, terrorism, and proliferation of nuclear weapons.”

Nuclear energy: “In light of the accident at Tokyo Electric Power Company's Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station on March 11 last year, the Government of Japan, aiming at realizing a society not dependent on nuclear power in the 2030's, while constantly reviewing and reexamining policies as carefully assessing future outlook including the international situation regarding energy, will mobilize all possible policy resources to demonstrate to the world a model which will underpin a good balance between the shift toward green energy and economic growth.”

Nuclear weapons, WMD, disarmament, non-proliferation: “Despite two world wars and the two calamities of atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, disarmament, non-proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD), and prevention of terrorism continue to be contemporary issues.”

Iran and DPRK’s nuclear programmes: “As nuclear and missile issues in the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK) and Iran currently pose serious threats to the entire world, it is indispensable for each country to coordinate at the United Nations and the IAEA, including the implementation of U.N. Security Council resolutions to urge both the DPRK and Iran to take concrete actions. Japan, the only country that has experienced the horror of nuclear devastation in war, will continue to carry out a mission of seeking a ‘world free of nuclear weapons’.”

Jordan
His Majesty King Abdullah II Bin Al Hussein,
King

25 September 2012

No relevant comments.

Kazakhstan
H.E. Mr. Kairat Umarov, Minister for Foreign Affairs
29 September 2012

Nuclear proliferation: “The threat of proliferation of nuclear weapons and technology, along with the specter of their acquisition and use by terrorist entities, has been one of the most daunting challenges to humanity.”

Nuclear disarmament: “It is our strong view that the possession of weapons of mass destruction is not a guarantee of security or greater independence. Kazakhstan's own record goes to show that countries reap huge benefits from the renunciation of nuclear weapons. By voluntarily giving up the world’s fourth largest nuclear arsenal and shutting down the largest test site in Semipalatinsk, on 29 August 1991, we have won more friends and have become a more prosperous, stable and influential country.

Kazakhstan fully supports the proposal by the United Nations Secretary-General to adopt a nuclear weapons convention. Sharing its declared goals, the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan H.E. Nursultan Nazarbayev suggested that, as an important step in that direction, the United Nations should adopt a Universal Declaration of a Nuclear-Weapon-Free World. This will, undoubtedly, facilitate our advancement towards a nuclear-weapon-free world and an early adoption of a nuclear weapons convention.”

NWFZ, negative security assurances: “Kazakhstan welcomes the establishment of a constructive dialogue with the 5 Nuclear Powers with a view to signing a protocol on negative assurances to the States Parties to the Treaty on a Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone in Central Asia.”

WMDFZ in the Middle East: “We call for an early establishment of a nuclear-weapon-free zone in the Middle East. In this regard, we look forward to the conference in Helsinki and its positive outcomes.”

Nuclear fuel cycle: “Kazakhstan is working on practical implementation of a project to host an International Bank of Low-enriched Uranium, under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), which would allow, if need be, to ensure uninterrupted supply of nuclear fuel. It has to be made clear that the Bank will in no way infringe upon the inalienable right of each State Party to the Treaty on Non-proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) to use nuclear energy for peaceful purposes, including the development of nuclear technology.”

Nuclear safety, non-proliferation: “This year, we will complete the project to enhance physical security of the former Semipalatinsk test site. We view this project, which is being implemented jointly with the United States and Russia, as our significant contribution to the global non-proliferation regime.”

Iran’s nuclear programme: “We have consistently advocated a peaceful, exclusively diplomatic, resolution of the situation around the Iranian nuclear program and look forward to the continuation of a constructive dialogue between Iran and all interested parties with a view to developing mutually acceptable solutions.”

Kenya
H.E. Mr. Mwai Kibaki
26 September 2012

Militarism: “It is our belief that when Nations rush to arms, and abandon the option of peaceful settlement of disputes, suffering and bloodshed will ensue. We call upon all warring parties in the world to lay down their arms and pursue the path of peace, dialogue and inclusive resolution of disputes.”

Kiribati
H.E. Mr. Anote Tong, President
26 September 2012

No relevant comments.

Kuwait
H.H. Sheikh Jaber Al Mubarak Al Hamad Al Sabah,
Prime Minister

26 September 2012

WMDFZ in the Middle East: “The State of Kuwait calls for the need to prepare well for the 2012 conference concerning the creation of a zone free from nuclear weapons and other weapons of mass destruction in the Middle East,according to the agreed upon reference, as provided in the final document of the 2010 Review Conference of the Non Proliferation Treaty.”

Iran’s nuclear programme: “On the regional level, the State of Kuwait renews its call to the friendly Islamic Republic of Iran to take serious and effective steps toward cooperating with the international efforts that seek to reach a political settlement for its nuclear program, and to dispel the doubts surrounding the goals and purposes of this program, thus sparing the region and its countries from further crisis and conflicts, that unfortunately, have become concomitant to this vital region.”

Kyrgyzstan
H.E. Mr. Asylbek Jeenbekov
, Parliament

27 September 2012

No relevant comments.

Lao People’s Democratic Republic
H.E. Mr. Thongloun Sisoulith, Deputy Prime Minister
28 September 2012

Arms trade treaty: “...the efforts to formulate an international instrument to govern arms trade and prevent illegal trading, which had started some years ago have also failed...”

Cluster munitions: “In addition to the problems resulted from the global and regional economic crisis and impact caused by natural calamities, Un-exploded Ordinance continues to harm people’s lives and poses major obstacles on national social and economic development including the attainment of the MDGs in the country. In this regard, we call upon all countries to become party to the Convention on Cluster Munitions with a view to fully banning the use of such weapon. The Lao Government is committed to realizing its national aspiration towards sustainable development and achieving the ultimate goal of graduating from the least developed status by 2020. On this occasion and on this august rostrum, the Lao PDR wishes to express its deepest appreciation and profound gratitude to the international community for the valuable support and effective assistance extended to the Lao PDR and we do hope that such support and assistance would continue.”

Latvia
H.E. Mr. Andris Bērziņš, President
26 September 2012

Weapons of mass destruction: “The proliferation risk of weapons of mass destruction is one of the most serious global threats. The international community should be united in its commitment to prevent it. Latvia is seriously concerned about the potential use of stockpiles of Syria's chemical weapons.”
                          
Iran's nuclear programme: “We deplore the lack of progress in dialogue with Iran on the nature of its nuclear programme. We believe that its full co-operation to clarify all outstanding questions is needed.”

Nuclear non-proliferation, disarmament: “We call for strengthening the efforts to reach the goals of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and its Action Plan. In this regard, we applaud steps made by the United States and Russia towards global disarmament and transparency. We hope it will trigger further efforts to reduce the reliance on nuclear weapons.”

SALW, arms trade treaty: “Latvia also welcomes the consensus outcome of the Second Review Conference on Small Arms and Light Weapons. And we should redouble our efforts to finding solutions on the Arms Trade Treaty in the nearest future.”

Lebanon
H.E. Mr. Najib Mikati
, President of the Council of Ministers

27 September 2012

WMDFZ in the Middle East, Israel’s nuclear programme: “Lebanon is committed to peace and strives to its achievement in the Middle East, a region in which we want to rid of massive destruction weapons. In this regard, we must remind ourselves that Israel is the only country in the region to have such destructive weapons and still refuses to ratify the United Nations Treaty of Non Proliferation of nuclear arms, a position that is a constant threat to peace in the region and the world at large.

Iran’s nuclear programme: “We would like to emphasize once more the necessity of a peaceful diplomatic solution of the Iranian nuclear issue while stressing on countries' right to use nuclear power for peaceful purposes, while avoiding double standards. We constantly value international efforts exerted to eradicate terrorism in the world.”

Lesotho
H.E. Mr. Thomas Motsoahae Thabane, Prime Minister
27 September 2012

Militarism: “Despite the lessons of history, there are countries that still believe they can solve the political problems of our time through war and coercion. It does not matter to them that history has shown that the goal of domination through the use of force is not only illusive and dangerous but is unsustainable.”

Iran’s nuclear programme: “Humanity derives no comfort from the potential conflict between the Islamic Republic of Iran and the western powers over the Iran’s nuclear programme. This looming crisis can be avoided, not through the threats that are being made against Iran, but through negotiations that are based on the respect of sovereign equality and the recognition of the rights and legitimate fears of all Parties involved. Our generation is already faced with too many problems. Surely we cannot afford another avoidable war.”

Nuclear weapons, WMD, disarmament: “The development and possession of nuclear and other weapons of mass destruction remain a serious concern for the peace and security of mankind. Some States possess these weapons in large quantities and have not remained faithful to their commitments under the Nuclear Weapons Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT). These states often threaten and humiliate Non-Nuclear Weapons States. That is why other Countries aspire to acquire nuclear weapons. We must renew our collective commitment to a nuclear weapons free world - a world that is safe for future generations, sustained by the shared values of universal peace and prosperity.”

Small arms and light weapons, conventional weapons, arms trade treaty: “In the same way, for as long as international trade in small arms, light weapons and other conventional weapons, remains unregulated, peace will continue to elude us. The failure of the international community to conclude a robust legally binding Arms Trade Treaty (ATT) less than three months ago has left an indelible mark on our generation. We need to step up efforts during this 67th Session and live up to our responsibilities. Conventional weapons, including small arms and light weapons, are the real weapons of mass destruction in Africa; they fuel conflict and account for scores of deaths of our People every day.”

Liberia
H.E. Ms. Ellen Johnson-Sirleaf
, President

26 September 2012

Arms trade treaty: “The high-level Diplomatic Conference on International Trade in Conventional Weapons, which ended recently here in New York, sought to develop the highest possible international standards for trade in conventional weapons. However, strong national positions on this sensitive global issue prevented an agreement on a binding Arms Trade Treaty. Yet, nations of good will and nations which have experienced devastation from illicit trading and diversions of conventional weapons must continue strong advocacy, taking into account the full range of differences and disagreements. We would thereby encourage bilateral consensus-building ahead of new rounds of negotiations. At the same time, we are convinced that the final draft Arms Trade Treaty text, though imperfect and inconclusive, contains essential ingredients upon which future negotiations can succeed.”

Libya
H.E. Mr. Mohamed Yousef El-Magariaf
, President

27 September 2012

[Unofficial translation]

Disarmament: “Libya is committed to respect all of its commitment in all international instruments on disarmament and the maintenance of international peace and security.”

WMD disarmament: “We are fully prepared to cooperate transparently and sincerely with the international community to support efforts both regional and international to implement the provisions of international agreements and protocol in order to create an international environment that would make progress towards ridding the world definitively of Weapons of Mass Destruction.”

WMD disarmament, armed conflict: “Our countries convene annually in this forum ever since the United Nations was established in order to reflect on the achievement of the objective set out in its charter, we have made achievements and many challenges remain, such as reform of the United Nations, ridding the world of Weapons of Mass Destruction, reduction of poverty ignorance and disease, to wars and armed conflicts fighting terrorism and organized crime, the protection of environment, achieving sustainable development, a respect for human rights, and mainly the rights of women and ensuring the rule of law fighting against racism, hatred and intolerance.”

Liechtenstein
H.E. Ms. Aurelia Frick,
Minister for Foreign Affairs

29 September 2012

No relevant comments.

Lithuania
H.E. Ms. Dalia Grybauskaitė, President
25 September 2012

Nuclear energy: “There is no energy related issue as unsafe nuclear energy development. It is obvious that each country can decide on its national energy mix; however, each national decision to develop nuclear energy can have a devastating transboundary impact and should be extremely well grounded and researched.”

Nuclear safety, nuclear energy: “There can be no sustainability, no development and no peaceful cooperation without nuclear safety. Mistakes in nuclear energy are too costly to be allowed. In this respect, we welcome the actions taken by the International Atomic Energy Agency to improve the existing system of international nuclear safety regulations. Lithuania  holds to the position that nuclear safety standards should be strengthened and, if needed, legal international imperatives should be adopted.”

Nuclear safety and security: “The 2012 Seoul Nuclear Summit clearly indicated that nuclear security and nuclear safety measures should be designed , implemented and managed in a coherent synergetic manner as they both have a common aim to protect the people and the environment.

“Keeping to its commitment assumed at the Nuclear Security Summit, Lithuania has contributed to international efforts to increase global awareness on the existing energy insecurities and ways to prevent them by establishing the Nuclear Security Centre of Excellence.”

Luxembourg
H.R. Henri of Luxembourg
, Grand Duke

26 September 2012

Disarmament, arms trade treaty: “I would not like to fail to mention another priority for Luxembourg in terms of conflict prevention is in the area of disarmament and non-proliferation. Luxembourg promotes the constant search for security at the lowest level of armament. It is a party to all global and regional treaties and conventions in this field. Despite the setback the international community has suffered this year, we remain committed to work towards an Arms Trade Treaty, which would help member states to combat the scourge of uncontrolled arms circulation effectively.”

Macedonia (The former Yugoslav Republic of)
H.E. Mr. Gjorge Ivanov
, President

27 September 2012

No relevant comments.

Madagascar
H.E. Mr. Andry Nirina Rajoelina
, President of the Transition of the Republic

26 September 2012

No relevant comments.

Maldives
H.E. Mr. Mohamed Waheed
, President

27 September 2012

No relevant comments.

Malawi
H.E. Ms. Joyce Hilda Mtila Banda, President
26 September 2012

No relevant comments.

Malaysia
H.E. Mr. Anifah Aman, Minister for Foreign Affairs
29 September 2012 

No relevant comments.

Mali
H.E. Mr Cheick Modibo Diarra, Prime Minister
26 September 2012

No relevant comments.

Malta
H.E. Mr. Tonio Borg, Deputy Prime Minister
28 September 2012

No relevant comments.

Marshall Islands
H.E. Mr. Christopher Jorebon Loeak, President
25 September 2012

Nuclear testing: “Since 1954, Marshallese leaders have visited the United Nations to address the ongoing impacts of the 67 nuclear tests conducted on our lands during our status as a UN Trust Territory. This is our first foreign policy issue – and it is more than a historical legacy – it is a contemporary reality for our local communities. The UN authorized many of these tests through two resolutions in 1954 and 1956, which also made assurances of our basic human rights and our full and safe return to lands where today too many Marshallese remain “nuclear nomads” – still unable to safely resettle. While I acknowledge the important efforts taken to date – half-lives of radioactive material remain for generations, and much more remains to be done.

“But today – for the first time since the Trusteeship resolution of 1956 – the UN has finally spoken. Earlier this month, the Special Rapporteur on toxic waste, Mr. Callin Georgescu, presented his report to the UN Human Rights Council in Geneva, regarding the nuclear testing program in the Marshall Islands. The Special Rapporteur has presented significant findings – that the pain, mistrust, progress and failures of the Marshallese people over decades have a human rights dimension – and that the international community must respond with more than silence. The Marshallese people have paid too heavy a price for the only instance in which the United Nations explicitly authorized the use of nuclear weapons.

“I urge all relevant actors – the United States, and the wider international community and it's agencies – to join with the Marshall Islands and the Pacific Islands Forum members in welcoming the Special Rapporteur's specific recommendations, as a way forward to assure progress on regaining the very human rights which should never have been lost. The Special Rapporteur's report must not be allowed to only collect dust on the shelf – it should instead be a foundation for new efforts, particularly with key international agencies.

“We have no more time for well-worn accusations. The Marshall Islands government must not fail to advance the human rights of our own citizens – and where old solutions have not worked, we must not fail to find new ones.”

Mauritania
H.E. Mr. Mady Ould Hamady, Minister for Foreign Affairs
29 September 2012

[Unofficial translation]

Small arms and light weapons: “We appreciate the results of the Conference on the fight against the illegal trafficking of small arms and light weapons, which has lead to the adoption by consensus of the Programme of Action, prohibiting the illicit trade of small arms and light weapons.”

Mauritius
H.E. Mr. Arvin Boolell, Minister of Foreign Affairs
1 October 2012

No relevant comments.

Mexico
H.E. Mr. Felipe Calderón Hinojosa, President
26 September 2012

[Unofficial translation]

Arms trade treaty: “Nevertheless, with profound sorrow, Mexico acknowledges that the determination with which we combat criminal organizations has not found a similar response among all nations. For example, we lament that the Diplomatic Conference realized here in July did not achieve an adopted agreement for the Arms Trade Treaty, which would have been the basis for controlling the irresponsible sale of high-powered arms for organized, transnational crime. Therefore, Mexico encourages a Treaty that limits and prohibits the transfer of conventional arms when there is a risk that they can be used to commit violations of international law.” 

Micronesia (Federate States of)
H.E. Mr. Emanuel Mori, President
27 September 2012

No relevant comments.

Monaco
H.E. Mr. Jose Badia, Minister for Foreign Relations
28 September 2012

No relevant comments.

Mongolia
H.E. Mr. Elbegdorj Tsakhia, President
27 September 2012

Nuclear disarmament, nuclear waste: “Mongolia cares deeply about safeguarding global peace. We must preserve our planet by eliminating nuclear weapons across the world. We are also firmly opposed to storing nuclear waste on Mongolian soil.”

NWFZ: “We celebrate twenty years of enjoying a nuclear free weapon status. I am grateful that on September Seventeenth, the five permanent members of the Security Council - The People’s Republic of China, France, the Russian Federation, the United Kingdom, and the United States, signed a joint declaration reaffirming that status for Mongolia. The Mongolia and Nuclear Free Weapon Zone dialogue, initiated and led by Mongolia, continues to make progress. We will host an event in 2015 to make even more.”

Nuclear energy: “While nuclear power may remain a viable energy option for some, any nuclear energy programme in development must submit to the permanent supervision of the United Nations and the International Atomic Energy Agency. Any nation seeking to build nuclear power must not endanger the peace and security of their independent neighbors. The solution to these challenges is engagement, not isolation. The solution is more diplomacy, more dialogue and more action.”

Military spending: “Instead of weapons, we should invest more in education. It unlocks the potential of every child.”

Montenegro
H.E. Mr. Nebojša Kaludjerović, Minister for Foreign Affairs
29 September 2012

No relevant comments.

Morocco
H.R.H. Prince Moulay Rachid, Prince
28 September 2012

No relevant comments.

Mozambique
H.E. Mr. Oldemiro Marques Baloi, Minister for Foreign Affairs
29 September 2012

No relevant comment.

Myanmar
H.E. Mr. Thein Sein
, President

27 September 2012

No relevant comments.

Namibia
H.E. Mr. Hifikepunye Pohamba, President
25 September 2012

No relevant comments.

Nauru
H.E. Mr. Sprent Arumogo Dabwido, President
25 September 2012

No relevant comments.

Nepal
H.E. Narayan Kaji Shrestha 'Prakash', Deputy Prime Minister and Minister for Foreign Affairs
28 September 2012

Nuclear technology, proliferation, arms race: “We recognize the legitimate rights of every sovereign state to pursue development of nuclear technology solely for peaceful purposes under effective international supervision. We stand firmly against nuclear proliferation and arms race, and misuse of nuclear technology for ulterior motives.”

Nuclear and WMD disarmament: “We reiterate our call for general and complete disarmament of nuclear and all other weapons of mass destruction in a time bound manner.”

Military spending: “It is an irony that funding for global development agenda and fighting poverty has been overshadowed by global military expense of over 1.7 trillion dollars per annum.”

Arms trade treaty: “We welcome the recent initiative towards conventional arms regulation within the UN and underline the importance of an early conclusion of the Arms Trade Treaty with the highest possible common standards for the import, export and transfer of conventional arms.”

Small arms and light weapons: “The international community should work in unison to strengthen controls over the small arms and light weapons to prevent their pervasive abuses by criminal elements.”

Regional disarmament: “We believe the confidence building dialogues and deliberations through regional mechanisms can greatly complement to the promotion of international peace and disarmament. Being host to Regional Centre for Peace and the Disarmament for Asia and the Pacific (RCPD), we emphasize the importance of revitalization of the 'Kathmandu Process' for promoting regional disarmament agenda.”

Disarmament: “As we continue to combat terrorism, we must not forget that the edifice of durable peace can be erected only on the firm pillars of the prevention of conflicts, peaceful resolution of disputes, persistent efforts for disarmament, poverty reduction and development, and respect for diversity, fairness and justice. There is a need to differentiate between terrorism and struggles for liberation and freedom for sustainability of peace and development.”

Netherlands (The)
H.E. Dr Uri Rosenthal, Minister for Foreign Affairs
28 September 2012

Non-proliferation, arms control, disarmament: “Better implementation of existing treaties on non-proliferation, arms control and disarmament is of paramount importance.”

Iran’s nuclear programme: “Iran must completely fulfill its IAEA obligations and abide by the Security Council resolutions. The burden of proof is on Iran. As I said to my Iranian colleague Minister Salehi earlier this week: ‘You need to convince the world of the peaceful character of your nuclear program’.”

Nuclear, chemical, and conventional weapons, disarmament machinery: “The international agendas on nuclear, chemical and conventional weapons must lead to concrete results and new treaties. The UN and the Conference on Disarmament in Geneva need to do better.”

Chemical weapons: “The Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons in The Hague this year celebrates its fifteenth anniversary. It should stand ready to assist in addressing the chemical weapons problem in Syria”.

Nuclear security: “The Netherlands will host the next Nuclear Security Summit in 2014 as part of our efforts to enhance security and fight nuclear terrorism.”

Arms trade treaty: “Negotiations on a robust and effective Arms Trade Treaty should recommence as soon as possible.”

New Zealand
H.E. Mr. Murray Mccully, Minister for Foreign Affairs
29 September 2012

Iran’s nuclear programme: “In his address to this Assembly earlier this week Prime Minister Netanyahu set out clearly the grave implications for the Middle East - and for the global community more generally - of a nuclear ‘break out’ in the region. Like other Member States, New Zealand believes Iran must be told to step back from a course that risks a further dangerous escalation of the situation. And we hope the international community will stand firm in sending this message.”

Nicaragua
H.E. Mr. Samuel Santos López
, Minister for Foreign Affairs

28 September 2012

Miltiarism: “The intense development of speculative ventures capital in developed counties has reduced the role of State in public affairs. The market is present in all areas: the economy, politics, culture, society, the individual arena and the mass media of communication, thus strengthening the influence of the giant corporations involved in food production, communications, drugs and the military-industrial complex. These are the real powers in world encompassing decisions - thus their decisions hold the outcome of many and important developments related to the economy and peace. This is totally contrary to the idea that gave rise to our Organization.”

Militarism: “Many outstanding thinkers describe this panorama as a struggle between the market and the State. However, the paradox is that the State, which itself wanted to obtain greater comfort for its citizens to be the paradigm of development, is one that today develops a new neo-iiberal program devoid of scruples and disguised as ‘necessary adjustments’ for ‘saving the economy and defending citizens.’ Thus it is revealed that in the developed countries the economy, the market and political power are all the same. In the developed countries, the State has only evolved for the purpose of merging into the same program their interests Of speculative finance capital, the large global corporations and industries, and the military-industrial complex.”

Iran’s nuclear programme: “A peaceful sohition regarding the Islamic Republic of Iran should be promoted.”

Disarmament, nuclear weapons, WMD: “We reaffirm our commitment to total and complete disarmament, and to international security. A world free of nuclear arms and free of weapons of mass destruction is indispensible.”

Niger (The)
H.E. Mr. Mohamed Bazoum, Minister of State
26 September 2012

No relevant comments.

Nigeria
H.E. Mr Goodluck Ebele Jonathon, President
25 September 2012

Small arms and light weapons: “On the multilateral front, the Lake Chad Basin Commission has been an excellent platform for cooperation. These efforts are aimed at safeguarding the security of our individual countries and denying extremists the use of our region as sanctuary. We are confident that these measures will stem the flow and access to small arms and light weapons, which have indeed become Africa's weapons of mass destruction and the most potent source of instability.”

Small arms and light weapons, disarmament machinery: “A ray of hope was offered early this month with the successful conclusion of the 2nd Review Conference on the implementation of the UN Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All its Aspects, including the unprecedented adoption of an outcome document under Nigeria’s Presidency. We expect that this positive achievement should impact on the entire disarmament process of the United Nations, including the Conference on Disarmament, the United Nations Disarmament Commission and other disarmament mechanisms.”

Arms trade treaty: “One [such] issue deserving the serious attention of the UN is the adoption of a legally binding Arms Trade Treaty. I believe this important instrument could galvanise the international community to regulate the transfer of conventional weapons and curb the illicit trade in small arms and light weapons. There is no doubt that the absence of a global consensus to control the flow of such weapons, including small arms and light weapons, is fuelling conflicts, constraining growth and development and increasing human rights violations.”

Disarmament: “The correlation between disarmament, peace and security and development is axiomatic and self-evident.”

Norway
Mr. Espen Barth Eide,Minister of Foreign Affairs  
27 September 2012

Landmines, cluster munitions: “People are only truly free when they are able to choose the way they want to live their lives. … It is the freedom ... that allows every child to live a healthy life, to receive education and to walk to school without fear of land mines or cluster munitions.”

Oman
H.E. Mr. Yousef Bin Al-Alawi Bin Abdulla, Minister of State for Foreign Affairs
1 October 2012

WMDFZ in the Middle East: “My country has from the outset supported the proposal to establish a nuclear weapon free zone and free of all weapons of mass destruction in the Middle East region. Based on this, my  country welcomes the convening of the NPT Review Conference to be held in Finland at the end of this year. We hope the meeting will be able to officially declare the establishment of the Middle East as a nuclear weapon free zone and free from all other weapons of mass destruction, similar to other zones that were established in other parts of the world.”

Pakistan
H.E. Mr. Asif Ali Zardari, President
25 September 2012

Drones: "No country and no people have suffered more in the epic struggle against terrorism, than
Pakistan. Drone strikes and civilian casualties on our territory add to the complexity of our battle for hearts and minds through this epic struggle."

Palau
H.E. Mr. Stuart Beck
, Permanent Representative to the UN

1 October 2012

Unexploded ordinance: “All these activities have been complimented by the outstanding work being done to remove explosive remnants of World War II from Palau. As President Toribiong stated from this podium last year, many of these explosives are still live, and are being discovered near our schools, our roads, and our utilities. With the help of our partners, many of these explosives are being destroyed, we hope that anyone interested in our efforts will attend our regional workshop in October to see first-hand the successful model of cooperation between Palau's government, an NGO, donors, and the local community that is eradicating unexploded ordnance from our midst.”

Palestine
H.E. Mr. Mahmoud Abbas
, President, Palestinian Authority

27 September 2012

No relevant comments.

Panama
H.E. Mr. Ricardo Martinelli Berrocal, President
25 September 2012

No relevant comments.

Papua New Guinea
H.E. Mr. Rimbink Pato, Minister for Foreign Affairs
29 September 2012

Nuclear disarmament, non-proliferation: “Papua New Guinea subscribes fully to disarmament and non-proliferation to a secure and peaceful world. We urge nuclear armed nations to denuclearize and those striving to go down this path to refrain from it.”

NWFZ: “The Pacific region remains a nuclear weapons free zone and we urge other UN Member States that have yet to sign and ratify the Rarotonga Treaty, which prohibits nuclear weapons in the region, to do so.”

Small arms and light weapons, arms trade treaty: “Papua New Guinea remains concerned with the continued proliferation of Small Arms and Light Weapons (SALW). The recent impasse on the negotiations on a global Arms Trade Treaty to regulate this remains a concern. We therefore urge member countries to continue work to conclude this Treaty.”

Paraguay
H.E. Mr. Luis Federico Franco Gómez
27 September 2012

Arms trafficking: “Paraguay is increasingly concerned with the increase of transnational organized crimes through its most evil manifestations: drug trafficking, arms trafficking, trafficking of migrants and human trafficking in general, among others.”

Peru
H.E. Mr. Rafael Roncagliolo Orbegoso, Minister of Foreign Affairs
27 September 2012

Cluster munitions: “As a concrete sign of Peru’s contribution to strengthening the rule of law, it has been a pleasure to deposit the instruments of ratification of the Convention for the Protection of All Persons from Enforced Disappearance and the Convention on Cluster Munitions; as well as the amendments to the Montreal Protocol regarding ozone depleting substances.”

NWFZ, landmines: “We want to consolidate South America as a Zone of Peace and of validity of a democratic citizenship without exclusions. It is already a nuclear weapon free zone and we hope that it soon comes to be free from anti-personnel mines. We need that the money currently spent in arms be redirected towards development and the defeat of poverty and inequality.”

Philippines
H.E. Mr. Albert F. Del Rosario, Secretary for Foreign Affairs
1 October 2012

Nuclear disarmament, non-proliferation, arms trafficking: “Among the gravest threats that continue to face us today is the deadly testament of man’s ability to destroy his fellow man. The full force of the rule of law must be brought to bear to prevent the proliferation of nuclear weapons, to promote nuclear disarmament and to end the flow of illicit weapons.”

NPT: “The Philippines is proud to have presided over the 2010 Review Conference of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. The historic adoption of the 64 Action Points
strengthened the legal regime of the Treaty.”

NWFZ, WMDFZ in the Middle East: “We also support Nuclear Weapons Free Zones, including the Southeast Asian Nuclear Weapons Free Zone (SEANWFZ) that ASEAN created. It is essential that such a zone be created for the volatile Middle East, as envisaged by the 2010 NPT RevCon. The Philippines commends the States from the region, the depository States of the 1995 Resolution, Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon and the Government of Finland for setting the stage for the 2012 Conference that will seek this most urgent objective.”

Nuclear testing: “The Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) is another critical pillar of global disarmament and non-proliferation. The Philippines commends Indonesia for being the latest Annex 2 State to ratify and reiterates its call on the remaining eight Annex 2 States to accede at the soonest possible time. Other States not included in Annex 2, but are not party to the CTBT, must do the same to ensure the universality of this treaty.”

Poland
H.E. Mr. Bronisław Komorowski, President
26 September 2012

Iran's nuclear programme:“We have been following with concern the tension resulting from the Iranian nuclear program. Our anxiety is caused by the increasingly tangible threat of proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and of intensified arms race among the Gulf states.”

Portugal
H.E. Mr. José Filipe Moraes Cabral, Permanent Representative to the UN
1 October 2012

Iran’s nuclear programme: “Another regional issue still suffering an impasse that is of serious concern in the Middle East is the question of a nuclear Iran. We regret the absence of any positive development on this issue despite the significant diplomatic efforts underway coupled with mechanisms of international pressure. The onus of this situation is in Tehran.”

Qatar
His Highness Sheikh Hamad bin Khalifa Al-Thani, Amir
25 September 2012

No relevant comments.

Republic of Korea
H.E. Kim Sung-Hwan, Minister for Foreign Affairs and Trade
28 September 2012

WMD: “Even though new global challenges to mankind such as climate change, poverty, and disease, underdevelopment, terrorism and WMD proliferation are now testing the international community, I have no doubt that we will overcome these challenges in our future path.”

Nuclear security: “The Republic of Korea is actively contributing to the global efforts in pursuit of ‘a world without nuclear weapons.’ The Seoul Nuclear Security Summit held last March brought together leaders across the world to galvanize the vision and the determination of the international community for a peaceful world without nuclear terrorism.  Throughout the Summit, the Korean Government played a leading role in forging a consensus to take important practical steps, such as substantial reduction of nuclear materials, the promotion of the universality of international conventions, and cooperation to combat illicit trafficking of nuclear material.”

Nuclear terrorism: “I am delighted that the High-Level Meeting on Countering nuclear Terrorism, which was convened this morning, has provided new momentum to push forward the efforts at the Seoul Summit for the prevention of nuclear and radiological terrorism.”

DPRK’s nuclear programme: “The North Korean nuclear program continues to pose a threat not only to the security of the Korean Peninsula and Northeast Asia, but indeed to the very basis of the international non-proliferation regime.  As long as the DPRK continues to pursue its nuclear and missile programs, achieving the goal of sustainable peace on the Korean Peninsula and in the region will remain far off.

“Unfortunately, the international community’s aspirations were shattered once again when the DPRK launched a long-range missile this April.  In response to this provocative action, the UN Security Council reaffirmed that the international community will not tolerate the continued pursuit by the DPRK of its nuclear and missile programs by issuing a firm and resolute Presidential Statement in an unprecedentedly swift manner.

“We urge with concern that the DPRK should take concrete measures aimed at denuclearization which will also open an avenue to improving the livelihood of its people. At the same time, we sincerely hope that the DPRK should listen to the international communities call for the improvement of its human rights situation , as repeatedly affirmed in the relevant UN resolutions.”

Republic of Moldova
H.E. Mr. Nicolae Timofti, President
26 September 2012

Non-proliferation, disarmament, WMD, delivery systems: “Non-proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction, disarmament and efficient control of armaments remain a vital topic on the international cooperation agenda that need common understanding, political will and engaged efforts from all states and international organizations. Republic of Moldova fully supports the international community in exerting constant control and applying necessary preventive measures on the unlawful attempts to develop weapons of mass destruction, and their means of delivery that pose a real threat to the international security and that are often used to challenge the existing world order.”

Arms control, small arms and light weapons: “The Republic of Moldova assumed significant objectives and is undertaking tangible steps in accomplishing its priorities in the field of arms control. In cooperation with our partners, the Government of the Republic of Moldova is in the process of adjusting to the best international standards the dual use goods export control legislation, improving SALW management for both civilians and military, ensuring proper border management and actively cooperating on the regional and international level.”

Romania
H.E. Titus Corlatean
26 September 2012

No relevant comments.

Russian Federation
H.E. Mr. Sergey V. Lavrov
, Minister for Foreign Affairs
28 September 2012

WMDFZ in the Middle East: “I also wish to stress that it is important to implement the decision on convening in 2012 the Conference on establishing in the Middle East of a zone free of weapons of mass destruction and means of their delivery. Undoubtedly, it is necessary to ensure participation in the Conference of all States of the region that should agree on key arrangements among themselves. In this regard, the League of Arab States is called to play an important role.”

DPRK and Iran’s nuclear programmes: “Strengthening of confidence and collective principles in the international life with the emphasis on negotiating pursuit for compromise solutions would help substantially reduce the level of instability and move forward in the settlement of crisis situations not only in the Middle East, but also around Iran, Afghanistan, in the Korean peninsula and throughout the world.”

Rwanda
H.E. Mr. Paul Kagame
, President

25 September 2012

No relevant comments.